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Honoring the “Warrior Tradition” and Native Americans Who Served in the Korean War

The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in the U.S. military other than what has been represented in Hollywood-produced films.  Recent movies about the Navajo code talkers of World War II, Marine Corporal Ira Hayes (a Pima) in the raising of the flag on Iwo Jima, and the Black Seminole scouts who rode with the cavalry and the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1890’s as the nation continued its westward expansion, have helped educate citizens about the noble military service of this country’s indigenous people. 

It should be noted, however, that Native Americans’ service to the US military predates the Revolutionary War. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as early as the 18th century.  In 1778, America’s first Commander in Chief, George Washington, observed, “I think they (Indians) can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops.” 

Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of Native American soldiers.  They were recruited by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898, alongside the Buffalo Soldiers.  In 1916, scouts accompanied General John J. Pershing’s expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. At the advent of World War I, more than 12,000 American Indians volunteered for military service though they were not considered citizens. 

The mental and spiritual qualities required for successful military service… strength, bravery, honor and wisdom…are inherent in the Indian warrior tradition, which continues to this day in the more than 156,000 men and women of Native American heritage who wear the nation’s uniform.   

Since 1869 twenty seven military members of American Indian/Alaskan Native heritage have received the Medal of Honor, many of whom died protecting their comrades. Native Americans who have earned the nation’s highest military award come from a number of different tribes, including: Pawnee; White Mountain Apache; Apache; Black Seminole; Muscogee; Cherokee; Ho Chuck; Chickasaw; Choctaw; and Sioux. During the Korean War, men from these and other tribes - Crow, Chippewa and Devil’s Lake Sioux - were integrated into the fighting forces and not maintained in segregated units like their African American and Puerto Rican compatriots. At home, however, they suffered the same indignity of societal discrimination faced by other minorities compounded by vilification in popular Hollywood cowboy and Indian movies that pervaded the entertainment scene in the 1950s.

An estimated 10,000 American Indians served in the Korean War, a percentage that far exceeded their numbers in the general population. Battle-experienced troops from World War II joined with new recruits to fight communist aggression in Korea.  Their officers, perhaps because they believed what they saw in the movies, tended to give them the most dangerous assignments.  

Three men of American Indian ancestry earned the Medal of Honor for service in the Korean War: Charles George; Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.; and Raymond Harvey. Though from different tribes, each man put his own life in jeopardy to save the lives of his brothers in arms. George and Red Cloud, Jr. were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. “When they were in those bunkers or those foxholes, there was no black, yellow, red or white.  It was just covering each other’s backs,” said Arthur Holden, deputy director of the National Congress of America.

In addition, three high-ranking officers went on to long, successful military careers.  The first Indian to graduate from the Naval Academy, Joseph J. “Jocko” Clark, a Cherokee, was the vice admiral in charge of the Navy’s 7th Fleet during the Korean War.  He led behind-the-lines raids that he termed “Cherokee Strikes,” employing aircraft from the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.  Major General Hal L. Muldrow, a Choctaw, commanded the 45th Infantry Division’s artillery division and Otwa Autry, a Creek, who later became a brigadier general, led the 189th Field Artillery Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division as it delivered some of the heaviest artillery fire during the battles for Hills 191 (T-Bone Ridge) and Hill 275 (Old Baldy) during the summer of 1952.

“There was a camaraderie that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime,” said Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne), the former U.S. senator and a U.S. Air Force Veteran of the Korean War. This is the proud history the nation celebrates during Native American/Alaskan Native Heritage Month.  What started in 1915 as an initiative to set aside one day to recognize the significant contributions of Native Americans to the growth and development of the United States has evolved to a month-long recognition and designation. 

In 1990 President George H.W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”  Subsequent proclamations have been issued annually since 1994. Today, there are more than 190,000 Native American military veterans, reflecting the highest record of service per capita when compared with other ethnic groups. 

The spirit of Mitchell Red Cloud lives on at Camp Red Cloud located in Ujeongbu, South Korea, which lies between Seoul and the Demilitarized Zone.  The Army camp was renamed Camp Red Cloud on Armed Forces Day in 1957 by Lieutenant General (LTG) Arthur G. Trudeau not long after his return to Korea as commander of I Corps.  LTG Trudeau had a long and distinguished career in the Army, including command of the 7th Infantry Division in Korea during the Korean War in 1952 at places such as Old Baldy, T-bone, Alligator Jaws and Pork Chop Hill. At the naming ceremony, LTG Trudeau said, “How wonderful it is that an American, a Native American Indian, whose ancestors lost their country to us, came over here to fight for the freedom of the native men of Asia.”

Today Camp Red Cloud is home to the 2nd Infantry Division (2ID) which recorded the highest casualty rate in the Korean War.  The 2ID wears the Indian Head patch with the motto, “Second to None.”

 

 

 

 


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menu_tree__main_menu ) ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 1217 [plid] => 363 [link_path] => node/936 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Personal History [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -45 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 363 [p2] => 1217 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Personal History [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/936 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [1153] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Historical Photos [#href] => [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [id] => historical_photos ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 1153 [plid] => 363 [link_path] => [router_path] => [link_title] => Historical Photos [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [id] => historical_photos ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 1 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -42 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 363 [p2] => 1153 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => [access_arguments] => [page_callback] => [page_arguments] => [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => [title] => Historical Photos [title_callback] => [title_arguments] => [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => [type] => [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [id] => historical_photos ) ) ) ) [1224] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Timeline [#href] => node/974 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 1224 [plid] => 363 [link_path] => node/974 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Timeline [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -42 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 0 [p1] => 363 [p2] => 1224 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Timeline [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/974 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [429] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => last [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Publications [#href] => node/273 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 429 [plid] => 363 [link_path] => node/273 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Publications [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 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[options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -48 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 363 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => History [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/261 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) [#children] =>
  • History
  • [#printed] => 1 ) [418] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Volunteer [#href] => node/480 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 418 [plid] => 0 [link_path] => node/480 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Volunteer [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -46 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 418 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Volunteer [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/480 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) [#children] =>
  • Volunteer
  • [#printed] => 1 ) [426] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => expanded ) ) [#title] => KW60 Events [#href] => node/435 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( [1296] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => first [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Events [#href] => node/435 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 1296 [plid] => 426 [link_path] => node/435 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Events [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -50 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 426 [p2] => 1296 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Events [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/435 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [1297] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => last [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Events Map [#href] => node/952 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [title] => Events Map ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 1297 [plid] => 426 [link_path] => node/952 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Events Map [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [title] => Events Map ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -49 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 426 [p2] => 1297 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Events Map [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/952 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [title] => Events Map ) ) ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => menu_tree__main_menu ) ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 426 [plid] => 0 [link_path] => node/435 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => KW60 Events [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -45 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 426 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => KW60 Events [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/435 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) [#children] =>
  • KW60 Events
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=> Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -49 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 698 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => KW60 Press Coverage [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/460 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [982] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Other Korean War News [#href] => blog [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 982 [plid] => 758 [link_path] => blog [router_path] => blog [link_title] => Other Korean War News [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => system [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -48 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 982 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => views_access [access_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;a:2:{i:0;s:16:"views_check_perm";i:1;a:1:{i:0;s:14:"access content";}}} [page_callback] => views_page [page_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:15:"enterprise_blog";i:1;s:4:"page";} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => blog [title] => Other Korean War News [title_callback] => t [title_arguments] => [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [href] => blog [access] => 1 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [422] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Public Service Announcements [#href] => node/266 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 422 [plid] => 758 [link_path] => node/266 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Public Service Announcements [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -47 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 422 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Public Service Announcements [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/266 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [427] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => last [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => KW60 Newsletter [#href] => node/271 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 427 [plid] => 758 [link_path] => node/271 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => KW60 Newsletter [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -46 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 427 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => KW60 Newsletter [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/271 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => menu_tree__main_menu ) ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 758 [plid] => 0 [link_path] => node/267 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Media & Press [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -44 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Media & Press [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/267 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) [#children] =>
  • Media & Press
  • [#printed] => 1 ) [702] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => expanded ) ) [#title] => Donate [#href] => node/444 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( [704] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => first [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => How Can I Help? [#href] => node/444 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 704 [plid] => 702 [link_path] => node/444 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => How Can I Help? [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -49 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 702 [p2] => 704 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => How Can I Help? [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/444 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [766] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => last [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => List of Donors & Sponsors [#href] => node/445 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 766 [plid] => 702 [link_path] => node/445 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => List of Donors & Sponsors [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -48 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 702 [p2] => 766 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => List of Donors & Sponsors [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/445 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => menu_tree__main_menu ) ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 702 [plid] => 0 [link_path] => node/444 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Donate [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -43 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 702 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Donate [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/444 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) [#children] =>
  • Donate
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  • Veteran Services
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  • Contact Us
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    Korean War veteran, Gerald Bowman, 82, with only a year to live is granted a...
    William V. Wuorinen receives Silver Star Medal for heroic actions during combat...
    "Let me not mourn for the men who have died fighting, but rather let me be...
    The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in...
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    The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in the U.S. military other than what has been represented in Hollywood-produced films.  Recent movies about the Navajo code talkers of World War II, Marine Corporal Ira Hayes (a Pima) in the raising of the flag on Iwo Jima, and the Black Seminole scouts who rode with the cavalry and the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1890’s as the nation continued its westward expansion, have helped educate citizens about the noble military service of this country’s indigenous people. 

    It should be noted, however, that Native Americans’ service to the US military predates the Revolutionary War. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as early as the 18th century.  In 1778, America’s first Commander in Chief, George Washington, observed, “I think they (Indians) can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops.” 

    Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of Native American soldiers.  They were recruited by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898, alongside the Buffalo Soldiers.  In 1916, scouts accompanied General John J. Pershing’s expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. At the advent of World War I, more than 12,000 American Indians volunteered for military service though they were not considered citizens. 

    The mental and spiritual qualities required for successful military service… strength, bravery, honor and wisdom…are inherent in the Indian warrior tradition, which continues to this day in the more than 156,000 men and women of Native American heritage who wear the nation’s uniform.   

    Since 1869 twenty seven military members of American Indian/Alaskan Native heritage have received the Medal of Honor, many of whom died protecting their comrades. Native Americans who have earned the nation’s highest military award come from a number of different tribes, including: Pawnee; White Mountain Apache; Apache; Black Seminole; Muscogee; Cherokee; Ho Chuck; Chickasaw; Choctaw; and Sioux. During the Korean War, men from these and other tribes - Crow, Chippewa and Devil’s Lake Sioux - were integrated into the fighting forces and not maintained in segregated units like their African American and Puerto Rican compatriots. At home, however, they suffered the same indignity of societal discrimination faced by other minorities compounded by vilification in popular Hollywood cowboy and Indian movies that pervaded the entertainment scene in the 1950s.

    An estimated 10,000 American Indians served in the Korean War, a percentage that far exceeded their numbers in the general population. Battle-experienced troops from World War II joined with new recruits to fight communist aggression in Korea.  Their officers, perhaps because they believed what they saw in the movies, tended to give them the most dangerous assignments.  

    Three men of American Indian ancestry earned the Medal of Honor for service in the Korean War: Charles George; Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.; and Raymond Harvey. Though from different tribes, each man put his own life in jeopardy to save the lives of his brothers in arms. George and Red Cloud, Jr. were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. “When they were in those bunkers or those foxholes, there was no black, yellow, red or white.  It was just covering each other’s backs,” said Arthur Holden, deputy director of the National Congress of America.

    In addition, three high-ranking officers went on to long, successful military careers.  The first Indian to graduate from the Naval Academy, Joseph J. “Jocko” Clark, a Cherokee, was the vice admiral in charge of the Navy’s 7th Fleet during the Korean War.  He led behind-the-lines raids that he termed “Cherokee Strikes,” employing aircraft from the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.  Major General Hal L. Muldrow, a Choctaw, commanded the 45th Infantry Division’s artillery division and Otwa Autry, a Creek, who later became a brigadier general, led the 189th Field Artillery Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division as it delivered some of the heaviest artillery fire during the battles for Hills 191 (T-Bone Ridge) and Hill 275 (Old Baldy) during the summer of 1952.

    “There was a camaraderie that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime,” said Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne), the former U.S. senator and a U.S. Air Force Veteran of the Korean War. This is the proud history the nation celebrates during Native American/Alaskan Native Heritage Month.  What started in 1915 as an initiative to set aside one day to recognize the significant contributions of Native Americans to the growth and development of the United States has evolved to a month-long recognition and designation. 

    In 1990 President George H.W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”  Subsequent proclamations have been issued annually since 1994. Today, there are more than 190,000 Native American military veterans, reflecting the highest record of service per capita when compared with other ethnic groups. 

    The spirit of Mitchell Red Cloud lives on at Camp Red Cloud located in Ujeongbu, South Korea, which lies between Seoul and the Demilitarized Zone.  The Army camp was renamed Camp Red Cloud on Armed Forces Day in 1957 by Lieutenant General (LTG) Arthur G. Trudeau not long after his return to Korea as commander of I Corps.  LTG Trudeau had a long and distinguished career in the Army, including command of the 7th Infantry Division in Korea during the Korean War in 1952 at places such as Old Baldy, T-bone, Alligator Jaws and Pork Chop Hill. At the naming ceremony, LTG Trudeau said, “How wonderful it is that an American, a Native American Indian, whose ancestors lost their country to us, came over here to fight for the freedom of the native men of Asia.”

    Today Camp Red Cloud is home to the 2nd Infantry Division (2ID) which recorded the highest casualty rate in the Korean War.  The 2ID wears the Indian Head patch with the motto, “Second to None.”

     

     

     

     

    [summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

    The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in the U.S. military other than what has been represented in Hollywood-produced films.  Recent movies about the Navajo code talkers of World War II, Marine Corporal Ira Hayes (a Pima) in the raising of the flag on Iwo Jima, and the Black Seminole scouts who rode with the cavalry and the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1890’s as the nation continued its westward expansion, have helped educate citizens about the noble military service of this country’s indigenous people. 

    It should be noted, however, that Native Americans’ service to the US military predates the Revolutionary War. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as early as the 18th century.  In 1778, America’s first Commander in Chief, George Washington, observed, “I think they (Indians) can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops.” 

    Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of Native American soldiers.  They were recruited by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898, alongside the Buffalo Soldiers.  In 1916, scouts accompanied General John J. Pershing’s expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. At the advent of World War I, more than 12,000 American Indians volunteered for military service though they were not considered citizens. 

    The mental and spiritual qualities required for successful military service… strength, bravery, honor and wisdom…are inherent in the Indian warrior tradition, which continues to this day in the more than 156,000 men and women of Native American heritage who wear the nation’s uniform.   

    Since 1869 twenty seven military members of American Indian/Alaskan Native heritage have received the Medal of Honor, many of whom died protecting their comrades. Native Americans who have earned the nation’s highest military award come from a number of different tribes, including: Pawnee; White Mountain Apache; Apache; Black Seminole; Muscogee; Cherokee; Ho Chuck; Chickasaw; Choctaw; and Sioux. During the Korean War, men from these and other tribes - Crow, Chippewa and Devil’s Lake Sioux - were integrated into the fighting forces and not maintained in segregated units like their African American and Puerto Rican compatriots. At home, however, they suffered the same indignity of societal discrimination faced by other minorities compounded by vilification in popular Hollywood cowboy and Indian movies that pervaded the entertainment scene in the 1950s.

    An estimated 10,000 American Indians served in the Korean War, a percentage that far exceeded their numbers in the general population. Battle-experienced troops from World War II joined with new recruits to fight communist aggression in Korea.  Their officers, perhaps because they believed what they saw in the movies, tended to give them the most dangerous assignments.  

    Three men of American Indian ancestry earned the Medal of Honor for service in the Korean War: Charles George; Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.; and Raymond Harvey. Though from different tribes, each man put his own life in jeopardy to save the lives of his brothers in arms. George and Red Cloud, Jr. were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. “When they were in those bunkers or those foxholes, there was no black, yellow, red or white.  It was just covering each other’s backs,” said Arthur Holden, deputy director of the National Congress of America.

    In addition, three high-ranking officers went on to long, successful military careers.  The first Indian to graduate from the Naval Academy, Joseph J. “Jocko” Clark, a Cherokee, was the vice admiral in charge of the Navy’s 7th Fleet during the Korean War.  He led behind-the-lines raids that he termed “Cherokee Strikes,” employing aircraft from the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.  Major General Hal L. Muldrow, a Choctaw, commanded the 45th Infantry Division’s artillery division and Otwa Autry, a Creek, who later became a brigadier general, led the 189th Field Artillery Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division as it delivered some of the heaviest artillery fire during the battles for Hills 191 (T-Bone Ridge) and Hill 275 (Old Baldy) during the summer of 1952.

    “There was a camaraderie that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime,” said Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne), the former U.S. senator and a U.S. Air Force Veteran of the Korean War. This is the proud history the nation celebrates during Native American/Alaskan Native Heritage Month.  What started in 1915 as an initiative to set aside one day to recognize the significant contributions of Native Americans to the growth and development of the United States has evolved to a month-long recognition and designation. 

    In 1990 President George H.W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”  Subsequent proclamations have been issued annually since 1994. Today, there are more than 190,000 Native American military veterans, reflecting the highest record of service per capita when compared with other ethnic groups. 

    The spirit of Mitchell Red Cloud lives on at Camp Red Cloud located in Ujeongbu, South Korea, which lies between Seoul and the Demilitarized Zone.  The Army camp was renamed Camp Red Cloud on Armed Forces Day in 1957 by Lieutenant General (LTG) Arthur G. Trudeau not long after his return to Korea as commander of I Corps.  LTG Trudeau had a long and distinguished career in the Army, including command of the 7th Infantry Division in Korea during the Korean War in 1952 at places such as Old Baldy, T-bone, Alligator Jaws and Pork Chop Hill. At the naming ceremony, LTG Trudeau said, “How wonderful it is that an American, a Native American Indian, whose ancestors lost their country to us, came over here to fight for the freedom of the native men of Asia.”

    Today Camp Red Cloud is home to the 2nd Infantry Division (2ID) which recorded the highest casualty rate in the Korean War.  The 2ID wears the Indian Head patch with the motto, “Second to None.”

     

     

     

     

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    The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in the U.S. military other than what has been represented in Hollywood-produced films.  Recent movies about the Navajo code talkers of World War II, Marine Corporal Ira Hayes (a Pima) in the raising of the flag on Iwo Jima, and the Black Seminole scouts who rode with the cavalry and the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1890’s as the nation continued its westward expansion, have helped educate citizens about the noble military service of this country’s indigenous people. 

    It should be noted, however, that Native Americans’ service to the US military predates the Revolutionary War. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as early as the 18th century.  In 1778, America’s first Commander in Chief, George Washington, observed, “I think they (Indians) can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops.” 

    Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of Native American soldiers.  They were recruited by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898, alongside the Buffalo Soldiers.  In 1916, scouts accompanied General John J. Pershing’s expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. At the advent of World War I, more than 12,000 American Indians volunteered for military service though they were not considered citizens. 

    The mental and spiritual qualities required for successful military service… strength, bravery, honor and wisdom…are inherent in the Indian warrior tradition, which continues to this day in the more than 156,000 men and women of Native American heritage who wear the nation’s uniform.   

    Since 1869 twenty seven military members of American Indian/Alaskan Native heritage have received the Medal of Honor, many of whom died protecting their comrades. Native Americans who have earned the nation’s highest military award come from a number of different tribes, including: Pawnee; White Mountain Apache; Apache; Black Seminole; Muscogee; Cherokee; Ho Chuck; Chickasaw; Choctaw; and Sioux. During the Korean War, men from these and other tribes - Crow, Chippewa and Devil’s Lake Sioux - were integrated into the fighting forces and not maintained in segregated units like their African American and Puerto Rican compatriots. At home, however, they suffered the same indignity of societal discrimination faced by other minorities compounded by vilification in popular Hollywood cowboy and Indian movies that pervaded the entertainment scene in the 1950s.

    An estimated 10,000 American Indians served in the Korean War, a percentage that far exceeded their numbers in the general population. Battle-experienced troops from World War II joined with new recruits to fight communist aggression in Korea.  Their officers, perhaps because they believed what they saw in the movies, tended to give them the most dangerous assignments.  

    Three men of American Indian ancestry earned the Medal of Honor for service in the Korean War: Charles George; Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.; and Raymond Harvey. Though from different tribes, each man put his own life in jeopardy to save the lives of his brothers in arms. George and Red Cloud, Jr. were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. “When they were in those bunkers or those foxholes, there was no black, yellow, red or white.  It was just covering each other’s backs,” said Arthur Holden, deputy director of the National Congress of America.

    In addition, three high-ranking officers went on to long, successful military careers.  The first Indian to graduate from the Naval Academy, Joseph J. “Jocko” Clark, a Cherokee, was the vice admiral in charge of the Navy’s 7th Fleet during the Korean War.  He led behind-the-lines raids that he termed “Cherokee Strikes,” employing aircraft from the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.  Major General Hal L. Muldrow, a Choctaw, commanded the 45th Infantry Division’s artillery division and Otwa Autry, a Creek, who later became a brigadier general, led the 189th Field Artillery Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division as it delivered some of the heaviest artillery fire during the battles for Hills 191 (T-Bone Ridge) and Hill 275 (Old Baldy) during the summer of 1952.

    “There was a camaraderie that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime,” said Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne), the former U.S. senator and a U.S. Air Force Veteran of the Korean War. This is the proud history the nation celebrates during Native American/Alaskan Native Heritage Month.  What started in 1915 as an initiative to set aside one day to recognize the significant contributions of Native Americans to the growth and development of the United States has evolved to a month-long recognition and designation. 

    In 1990 President George H.W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”  Subsequent proclamations have been issued annually since 1994. Today, there are more than 190,000 Native American military veterans, reflecting the highest record of service per capita when compared with other ethnic groups. 

    The spirit of Mitchell Red Cloud lives on at Camp Red Cloud located in Ujeongbu, South Korea, which lies between Seoul and the Demilitarized Zone.  The Army camp was renamed Camp Red Cloud on Armed Forces Day in 1957 by Lieutenant General (LTG) Arthur G. Trudeau not long after his return to Korea as commander of I Corps.  LTG Trudeau had a long and distinguished career in the Army, including command of the 7th Infantry Division in Korea during the Korean War in 1952 at places such as Old Baldy, T-bone, Alligator Jaws and Pork Chop Hill. At the naming ceremony, LTG Trudeau said, “How wonderful it is that an American, a Native American Indian, whose ancestors lost their country to us, came over here to fight for the freedom of the native men of Asia.”

    Today Camp Red Cloud is home to the 2nd Infantry Division (2ID) which recorded the highest casualty rate in the Korean War.  The 2ID wears the Indian Head patch with the motto, “Second to None.”

     

     

     

     

    [summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

    The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in the U.S. military other than what has been represented in Hollywood-produced films.  Recent movies about the Navajo code talkers of World War II, Marine Corporal Ira Hayes (a Pima) in the raising of the flag on Iwo Jima, and the Black Seminole scouts who rode with the cavalry and the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1890’s as the nation continued its westward expansion, have helped educate citizens about the noble military service of this country’s indigenous people. 

    It should be noted, however, that Native Americans’ service to the US military predates the Revolutionary War. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as early as the 18th century.  In 1778, America’s first Commander in Chief, George Washington, observed, “I think they (Indians) can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops.” 

    Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of Native American soldiers.  They were recruited by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898, alongside the Buffalo Soldiers.  In 1916, scouts accompanied General John J. Pershing’s expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. At the advent of World War I, more than 12,000 American Indians volunteered for military service though they were not considered citizens. 

    The mental and spiritual qualities required for successful military service… strength, bravery, honor and wisdom…are inherent in the Indian warrior tradition, which continues to this day in the more than 156,000 men and women of Native American heritage who wear the nation’s uniform.   

    Since 1869 twenty seven military members of American Indian/Alaskan Native heritage have received the Medal of Honor, many of whom died protecting their comrades. Native Americans who have earned the nation’s highest military award come from a number of different tribes, including: Pawnee; White Mountain Apache; Apache; Black Seminole; Muscogee; Cherokee; Ho Chuck; Chickasaw; Choctaw; and Sioux. During the Korean War, men from these and other tribes - Crow, Chippewa and Devil’s Lake Sioux - were integrated into the fighting forces and not maintained in segregated units like their African American and Puerto Rican compatriots. At home, however, they suffered the same indignity of societal discrimination faced by other minorities compounded by vilification in popular Hollywood cowboy and Indian movies that pervaded the entertainment scene in the 1950s.

    An estimated 10,000 American Indians served in the Korean War, a percentage that far exceeded their numbers in the general population. Battle-experienced troops from World War II joined with new recruits to fight communist aggression in Korea.  Their officers, perhaps because they believed what they saw in the movies, tended to give them the most dangerous assignments.  

    Three men of American Indian ancestry earned the Medal of Honor for service in the Korean War: Charles George; Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.; and Raymond Harvey. Though from different tribes, each man put his own life in jeopardy to save the lives of his brothers in arms. George and Red Cloud, Jr. were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. “When they were in those bunkers or those foxholes, there was no black, yellow, red or white.  It was just covering each other’s backs,” said Arthur Holden, deputy director of the National Congress of America.

    In addition, three high-ranking officers went on to long, successful military careers.  The first Indian to graduate from the Naval Academy, Joseph J. “Jocko” Clark, a Cherokee, was the vice admiral in charge of the Navy’s 7th Fleet during the Korean War.  He led behind-the-lines raids that he termed “Cherokee Strikes,” employing aircraft from the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.  Major General Hal L. Muldrow, a Choctaw, commanded the 45th Infantry Division’s artillery division and Otwa Autry, a Creek, who later became a brigadier general, led the 189th Field Artillery Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division as it delivered some of the heaviest artillery fire during the battles for Hills 191 (T-Bone Ridge) and Hill 275 (Old Baldy) during the summer of 1952.

    “There was a camaraderie that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime,” said Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne), the former U.S. senator and a U.S. Air Force Veteran of the Korean War. This is the proud history the nation celebrates during Native American/Alaskan Native Heritage Month.  What started in 1915 as an initiative to set aside one day to recognize the significant contributions of Native Americans to the growth and development of the United States has evolved to a month-long recognition and designation. 

    In 1990 President George H.W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”  Subsequent proclamations have been issued annually since 1994. Today, there are more than 190,000 Native American military veterans, reflecting the highest record of service per capita when compared with other ethnic groups. 

    The spirit of Mitchell Red Cloud lives on at Camp Red Cloud located in Ujeongbu, South Korea, which lies between Seoul and the Demilitarized Zone.  The Army camp was renamed Camp Red Cloud on Armed Forces Day in 1957 by Lieutenant General (LTG) Arthur G. Trudeau not long after his return to Korea as commander of I Corps.  LTG Trudeau had a long and distinguished career in the Army, including command of the 7th Infantry Division in Korea during the Korean War in 1952 at places such as Old Baldy, T-bone, Alligator Jaws and Pork Chop Hill. At the naming ceremony, LTG Trudeau said, “How wonderful it is that an American, a Native American Indian, whose ancestors lost their country to us, came over here to fight for the freedom of the native men of Asia.”

    Today Camp Red Cloud is home to the 2nd Infantry Division (2ID) which recorded the highest casualty rate in the Korean War.  The 2ID wears the Indian Head patch with the motto, “Second to None.”

     

     

     

     

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    The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in the U.S. military other than what has been represented in Hollywood-produced films.  Recent movies about the Navajo code talkers of World War II, Marine Corporal Ira Hayes (a Pima) in the raising of the flag on Iwo Jima, and the Black Seminole scouts who rode with the cavalry and the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1890’s as the nation continued its westward expansion, have helped educate citizens about the noble military service of this country’s indigenous people. 

    It should be noted, however, that Native Americans’ service to the US military predates the Revolutionary War. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as early as the 18th century.  In 1778, America’s first Commander in Chief, George Washington, observed, “I think they (Indians) can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops.” 

    Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of Native American soldiers.  They were recruited by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898, alongside the Buffalo Soldiers.  In 1916, scouts accompanied General John J. Pershing’s expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. At the advent of World War I, more than 12,000 American Indians volunteered for military service though they were not considered citizens. 

    The mental and spiritual qualities required for successful military service… strength, bravery, honor and wisdom…are inherent in the Indian warrior tradition, which continues to this day in the more than 156,000 men and women of Native American heritage who wear the nation’s uniform.   

    Since 1869 twenty seven military members of American Indian/Alaskan Native heritage have received the Medal of Honor, many of whom died protecting their comrades. Native Americans who have earned the nation’s highest military award come from a number of different tribes, including: Pawnee; White Mountain Apache; Apache; Black Seminole; Muscogee; Cherokee; Ho Chuck; Chickasaw; Choctaw; and Sioux. During the Korean War, men from these and other tribes - Crow, Chippewa and Devil’s Lake Sioux - were integrated into the fighting forces and not maintained in segregated units like their African American and Puerto Rican compatriots. At home, however, they suffered the same indignity of societal discrimination faced by other minorities compounded by vilification in popular Hollywood cowboy and Indian movies that pervaded the entertainment scene in the 1950s.

    An estimated 10,000 American Indians served in the Korean War, a percentage that far exceeded their numbers in the general population. Battle-experienced troops from World War II joined with new recruits to fight communist aggression in Korea.  Their officers, perhaps because they believed what they saw in the movies, tended to give them the most dangerous assignments.  

    Three men of American Indian ancestry earned the Medal of Honor for service in the Korean War: Charles George; Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.; and Raymond Harvey. Though from different tribes, each man put his own life in jeopardy to save the lives of his brothers in arms. George and Red Cloud, Jr. were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. “When they were in those bunkers or those foxholes, there was no black, yellow, red or white.  It was just covering each other’s backs,” said Arthur Holden, deputy director of the National Congress of America.

    In addition, three high-ranking officers went on to long, successful military careers.  The first Indian to graduate from the Naval Academy, Joseph J. “Jocko” Clark, a Cherokee, was the vice admiral in charge of the Navy’s 7th Fleet during the Korean War.  He led behind-the-lines raids that he termed “Cherokee Strikes,” employing aircraft from the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.  Major General Hal L. Muldrow, a Choctaw, commanded the 45th Infantry Division’s artillery division and Otwa Autry, a Creek, who later became a brigadier general, led the 189th Field Artillery Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division as it delivered some of the heaviest artillery fire during the battles for Hills 191 (T-Bone Ridge) and Hill 275 (Old Baldy) during the summer of 1952.

    “There was a camaraderie that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime,” said Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne), the former U.S. senator and a U.S. Air Force Veteran of the Korean War. This is the proud history the nation celebrates during Native American/Alaskan Native Heritage Month.  What started in 1915 as an initiative to set aside one day to recognize the significant contributions of Native Americans to the growth and development of the United States has evolved to a month-long recognition and designation. 

    In 1990 President George H.W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”  Subsequent proclamations have been issued annually since 1994. Today, there are more than 190,000 Native American military veterans, reflecting the highest record of service per capita when compared with other ethnic groups. 

    The spirit of Mitchell Red Cloud lives on at Camp Red Cloud located in Ujeongbu, South Korea, which lies between Seoul and the Demilitarized Zone.  The Army camp was renamed Camp Red Cloud on Armed Forces Day in 1957 by Lieutenant General (LTG) Arthur G. Trudeau not long after his return to Korea as commander of I Corps.  LTG Trudeau had a long and distinguished career in the Army, including command of the 7th Infantry Division in Korea during the Korean War in 1952 at places such as Old Baldy, T-bone, Alligator Jaws and Pork Chop Hill. At the naming ceremony, LTG Trudeau said, “How wonderful it is that an American, a Native American Indian, whose ancestors lost their country to us, came over here to fight for the freedom of the native men of Asia.”

    Today Camp Red Cloud is home to the 2nd Infantry Division (2ID) which recorded the highest casualty rate in the Korean War.  The 2ID wears the Indian Head patch with the motto, “Second to None.”

     

     

     

     

    [summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

    The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in the U.S. military other than what has been represented in Hollywood-produced films.  Recent movies about the Navajo code talkers of World War II, Marine Corporal Ira Hayes (a Pima) in the raising of the flag on Iwo Jima, and the Black Seminole scouts who rode with the cavalry and the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1890’s as the nation continued its westward expansion, have helped educate citizens about the noble military service of this country’s indigenous people. 

    It should be noted, however, that Native Americans’ service to the US military predates the Revolutionary War. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as early as the 18th century.  In 1778, America’s first Commander in Chief, George Washington, observed, “I think they (Indians) can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops.” 

    Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of Native American soldiers.  They were recruited by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898, alongside the Buffalo Soldiers.  In 1916, scouts accompanied General John J. Pershing’s expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. At the advent of World War I, more than 12,000 American Indians volunteered for military service though they were not considered citizens. 

    The mental and spiritual qualities required for successful military service… strength, bravery, honor and wisdom…are inherent in the Indian warrior tradition, which continues to this day in the more than 156,000 men and women of Native American heritage who wear the nation’s uniform.   

    Since 1869 twenty seven military members of American Indian/Alaskan Native heritage have received the Medal of Honor, many of whom died protecting their comrades. Native Americans who have earned the nation’s highest military award come from a number of different tribes, including: Pawnee; White Mountain Apache; Apache; Black Seminole; Muscogee; Cherokee; Ho Chuck; Chickasaw; Choctaw; and Sioux. During the Korean War, men from these and other tribes - Crow, Chippewa and Devil’s Lake Sioux - were integrated into the fighting forces and not maintained in segregated units like their African American and Puerto Rican compatriots. At home, however, they suffered the same indignity of societal discrimination faced by other minorities compounded by vilification in popular Hollywood cowboy and Indian movies that pervaded the entertainment scene in the 1950s.

    An estimated 10,000 American Indians served in the Korean War, a percentage that far exceeded their numbers in the general population. Battle-experienced troops from World War II joined with new recruits to fight communist aggression in Korea.  Their officers, perhaps because they believed what they saw in the movies, tended to give them the most dangerous assignments.  

    Three men of American Indian ancestry earned the Medal of Honor for service in the Korean War: Charles George; Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.; and Raymond Harvey. Though from different tribes, each man put his own life in jeopardy to save the lives of his brothers in arms. George and Red Cloud, Jr. were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. “When they were in those bunkers or those foxholes, there was no black, yellow, red or white.  It was just covering each other’s backs,” said Arthur Holden, deputy director of the National Congress of America.

    In addition, three high-ranking officers went on to long, successful military careers.  The first Indian to graduate from the Naval Academy, Joseph J. “Jocko” Clark, a Cherokee, was the vice admiral in charge of the Navy’s 7th Fleet during the Korean War.  He led behind-the-lines raids that he termed “Cherokee Strikes,” employing aircraft from the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.  Major General Hal L. Muldrow, a Choctaw, commanded the 45th Infantry Division’s artillery division and Otwa Autry, a Creek, who later became a brigadier general, led the 189th Field Artillery Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division as it delivered some of the heaviest artillery fire during the battles for Hills 191 (T-Bone Ridge) and Hill 275 (Old Baldy) during the summer of 1952.

    “There was a camaraderie that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime,” said Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne), the former U.S. senator and a U.S. Air Force Veteran of the Korean War. This is the proud history the nation celebrates during Native American/Alaskan Native Heritage Month.  What started in 1915 as an initiative to set aside one day to recognize the significant contributions of Native Americans to the growth and development of the United States has evolved to a month-long recognition and designation. 

    In 1990 President George H.W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”  Subsequent proclamations have been issued annually since 1994. Today, there are more than 190,000 Native American military veterans, reflecting the highest record of service per capita when compared with other ethnic groups. 

    The spirit of Mitchell Red Cloud lives on at Camp Red Cloud located in Ujeongbu, South Korea, which lies between Seoul and the Demilitarized Zone.  The Army camp was renamed Camp Red Cloud on Armed Forces Day in 1957 by Lieutenant General (LTG) Arthur G. Trudeau not long after his return to Korea as commander of I Corps.  LTG Trudeau had a long and distinguished career in the Army, including command of the 7th Infantry Division in Korea during the Korean War in 1952 at places such as Old Baldy, T-bone, Alligator Jaws and Pork Chop Hill. At the naming ceremony, LTG Trudeau said, “How wonderful it is that an American, a Native American Indian, whose ancestors lost their country to us, came over here to fight for the freedom of the native men of Asia.”

    Today Camp Red Cloud is home to the 2nd Infantry Division (2ID) which recorded the highest casualty rate in the Korean War.  The 2ID wears the Indian Head patch with the motto, “Second to None.”

     

     

     

     

    [safe_summary] => ) ) [#formatter] => text_default [0] => Array ( [#markup] =>

    The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in the U.S. military other than what has been represented in Hollywood-produced films.  Recent movies about the Navajo code talkers of World War II, Marine Corporal Ira Hayes (a Pima) in the raising of the flag on Iwo Jima, and the Black Seminole scouts who rode with the cavalry and the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1890’s as the nation continued its westward expansion, have helped educate citizens about the noble military service of this country’s indigenous people. 

    It should be noted, however, that Native Americans’ service to the US military predates the Revolutionary War. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as early as the 18th century.  In 1778, America’s first Commander in Chief, George Washington, observed, “I think they (Indians) can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops.” 

    Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of Native American soldiers.  They were recruited by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898, alongside the Buffalo Soldiers.  In 1916, scouts accompanied General John J. Pershing’s expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. At the advent of World War I, more than 12,000 American Indians volunteered for military service though they were not considered citizens. 

    The mental and spiritual qualities required for successful military service… strength, bravery, honor and wisdom…are inherent in the Indian warrior tradition, which continues to this day in the more than 156,000 men and women of Native American heritage who wear the nation’s uniform.   

    Since 1869 twenty seven military members of American Indian/Alaskan Native heritage have received the Medal of Honor, many of whom died protecting their comrades. Native Americans who have earned the nation’s highest military award come from a number of different tribes, including: Pawnee; White Mountain Apache; Apache; Black Seminole; Muscogee; Cherokee; Ho Chuck; Chickasaw; Choctaw; and Sioux. During the Korean War, men from these and other tribes - Crow, Chippewa and Devil’s Lake Sioux - were integrated into the fighting forces and not maintained in segregated units like their African American and Puerto Rican compatriots. At home, however, they suffered the same indignity of societal discrimination faced by other minorities compounded by vilification in popular Hollywood cowboy and Indian movies that pervaded the entertainment scene in the 1950s.

    An estimated 10,000 American Indians served in the Korean War, a percentage that far exceeded their numbers in the general population. Battle-experienced troops from World War II joined with new recruits to fight communist aggression in Korea.  Their officers, perhaps because they believed what they saw in the movies, tended to give them the most dangerous assignments.  

    Three men of American Indian ancestry earned the Medal of Honor for service in the Korean War: Charles George; Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.; and Raymond Harvey. Though from different tribes, each man put his own life in jeopardy to save the lives of his brothers in arms. George and Red Cloud, Jr. were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. “When they were in those bunkers or those foxholes, there was no black, yellow, red or white.  It was just covering each other’s backs,” said Arthur Holden, deputy director of the National Congress of America.

    In addition, three high-ranking officers went on to long, successful military careers.  The first Indian to graduate from the Naval Academy, Joseph J. “Jocko” Clark, a Cherokee, was the vice admiral in charge of the Navy’s 7th Fleet during the Korean War.  He led behind-the-lines raids that he termed “Cherokee Strikes,” employing aircraft from the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.  Major General Hal L. Muldrow, a Choctaw, commanded the 45th Infantry Division’s artillery division and Otwa Autry, a Creek, who later became a brigadier general, led the 189th Field Artillery Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division as it delivered some of the heaviest artillery fire during the battles for Hills 191 (T-Bone Ridge) and Hill 275 (Old Baldy) during the summer of 1952.

    “There was a camaraderie that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime,” said Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne), the former U.S. senator and a U.S. Air Force Veteran of the Korean War. This is the proud history the nation celebrates during Native American/Alaskan Native Heritage Month.  What started in 1915 as an initiative to set aside one day to recognize the significant contributions of Native Americans to the growth and development of the United States has evolved to a month-long recognition and designation. 

    In 1990 President George H.W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”  Subsequent proclamations have been issued annually since 1994. Today, there are more than 190,000 Native American military veterans, reflecting the highest record of service per capita when compared with other ethnic groups. 

    The spirit of Mitchell Red Cloud lives on at Camp Red Cloud located in Ujeongbu, South Korea, which lies between Seoul and the Demilitarized Zone.  The Army camp was renamed Camp Red Cloud on Armed Forces Day in 1957 by Lieutenant General (LTG) Arthur G. Trudeau not long after his return to Korea as commander of I Corps.  LTG Trudeau had a long and distinguished career in the Army, including command of the 7th Infantry Division in Korea during the Korean War in 1952 at places such as Old Baldy, T-bone, Alligator Jaws and Pork Chop Hill. At the naming ceremony, LTG Trudeau said, “How wonderful it is that an American, a Native American Indian, whose ancestors lost their country to us, came over here to fight for the freedom of the native men of Asia.”

    Today Camp Red Cloud is home to the 2nd Infantry Division (2ID) which recorded the highest casualty rate in the Korean War.  The 2ID wears the Indian Head patch with the motto, “Second to None.”

     

     

     

     

    ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#children] =>

    The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in the U.S. military other than what has been represented in Hollywood-produced films.  Recent movies about the Navajo code talkers of World War II, Marine Corporal Ira Hayes (a Pima) in the raising of the flag on Iwo Jima, and the Black Seminole scouts who rode with the cavalry and the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1890’s as the nation continued its westward expansion, have helped educate citizens about the noble military service of this country’s indigenous people. 

    It should be noted, however, that Native Americans’ service to the US military predates the Revolutionary War. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as early as the 18th century.  In 1778, America’s first Commander in Chief, George Washington, observed, “I think they (Indians) can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops.” 

    Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of Native American soldiers.  They were recruited by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898, alongside the Buffalo Soldiers.  In 1916, scouts accompanied General John J. Pershing’s expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. At the advent of World War I, more than 12,000 American Indians volunteered for military service though they were not considered citizens. 

    The mental and spiritual qualities required for successful military service… strength, bravery, honor and wisdom…are inherent in the Indian warrior tradition, which continues to this day in the more than 156,000 men and women of Native American heritage who wear the nation’s uniform.   

    Since 1869 twenty seven military members of American Indian/Alaskan Native heritage have received the Medal of Honor, many of whom died protecting their comrades. Native Americans who have earned the nation’s highest military award come from a number of different tribes, including: Pawnee; White Mountain Apache; Apache; Black Seminole; Muscogee; Cherokee; Ho Chuck; Chickasaw; Choctaw; and Sioux. During the Korean War, men from these and other tribes - Crow, Chippewa and Devil’s Lake Sioux - were integrated into the fighting forces and not maintained in segregated units like their African American and Puerto Rican compatriots. At home, however, they suffered the same indignity of societal discrimination faced by other minorities compounded by vilification in popular Hollywood cowboy and Indian movies that pervaded the entertainment scene in the 1950s.

    An estimated 10,000 American Indians served in the Korean War, a percentage that far exceeded their numbers in the general population. Battle-experienced troops from World War II joined with new recruits to fight communist aggression in Korea.  Their officers, perhaps because they believed what they saw in the movies, tended to give them the most dangerous assignments.  

    Three men of American Indian ancestry earned the Medal of Honor for service in the Korean War: Charles George; Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.; and Raymond Harvey. Though from different tribes, each man put his own life in jeopardy to save the lives of his brothers in arms. George and Red Cloud, Jr. were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. “When they were in those bunkers or those foxholes, there was no black, yellow, red or white.  It was just covering each other’s backs,” said Arthur Holden, deputy director of the National Congress of America.

    In addition, three high-ranking officers went on to long, successful military careers.  The first Indian to graduate from the Naval Academy, Joseph J. “Jocko” Clark, a Cherokee, was the vice admiral in charge of the Navy’s 7th Fleet during the Korean War.  He led behind-the-lines raids that he termed “Cherokee Strikes,” employing aircraft from the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.  Major General Hal L. Muldrow, a Choctaw, commanded the 45th Infantry Division’s artillery division and Otwa Autry, a Creek, who later became a brigadier general, led the 189th Field Artillery Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division as it delivered some of the heaviest artillery fire during the battles for Hills 191 (T-Bone Ridge) and Hill 275 (Old Baldy) during the summer of 1952.

    “There was a camaraderie that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime,” said Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne), the former U.S. senator and a U.S. Air Force Veteran of the Korean War. This is the proud history the nation celebrates during Native American/Alaskan Native Heritage Month.  What started in 1915 as an initiative to set aside one day to recognize the significant contributions of Native Americans to the growth and development of the United States has evolved to a month-long recognition and designation. 

    In 1990 President George H.W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”  Subsequent proclamations have been issued annually since 1994. Today, there are more than 190,000 Native American military veterans, reflecting the highest record of service per capita when compared with other ethnic groups. 

    The spirit of Mitchell Red Cloud lives on at Camp Red Cloud located in Ujeongbu, South Korea, which lies between Seoul and the Demilitarized Zone.  The Army camp was renamed Camp Red Cloud on Armed Forces Day in 1957 by Lieutenant General (LTG) Arthur G. Trudeau not long after his return to Korea as commander of I Corps.  LTG Trudeau had a long and distinguished career in the Army, including command of the 7th Infantry Division in Korea during the Korean War in 1952 at places such as Old Baldy, T-bone, Alligator Jaws and Pork Chop Hill. At the naming ceremony, LTG Trudeau said, “How wonderful it is that an American, a Native American Indian, whose ancestors lost their country to us, came over here to fight for the freedom of the native men of Asia.”

    Today Camp Red Cloud is home to the 2nd Infantry Division (2ID) which recorded the highest casualty rate in the Korean War.  The 2ID wears the Indian Head patch with the motto, “Second to None.”

     

     

     

     

    [#printed] => 1 ) [#sorted] => 1 [#children] =>

    The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in the U.S. military other than what has been represented in Hollywood-produced films.  Recent movies about the Navajo code talkers of World War II, Marine Corporal Ira Hayes (a Pima) in the raising of the flag on Iwo Jima, and the Black Seminole scouts who rode with the cavalry and the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1890’s as the nation continued its westward expansion, have helped educate citizens about the noble military service of this country’s indigenous people. 

    It should be noted, however, that Native Americans’ service to the US military predates the Revolutionary War. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as early as the 18th century.  In 1778, America’s first Commander in Chief, George Washington, observed, “I think they (Indians) can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops.” 

    Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of Native American soldiers.  They were recruited by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898, alongside the Buffalo Soldiers.  In 1916, scouts accompanied General John J. Pershing’s expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. At the advent of World War I, more than 12,000 American Indians volunteered for military service though they were not considered citizens. 

    The mental and spiritual qualities required for successful military service… strength, bravery, honor and wisdom…are inherent in the Indian warrior tradition, which continues to this day in the more than 156,000 men and women of Native American heritage who wear the nation’s uniform.   

    Since 1869 twenty seven military members of American Indian/Alaskan Native heritage have received the Medal of Honor, many of whom died protecting their comrades. Native Americans who have earned the nation’s highest military award come from a number of different tribes, including: Pawnee; White Mountain Apache; Apache; Black Seminole; Muscogee; Cherokee; Ho Chuck; Chickasaw; Choctaw; and Sioux. During the Korean War, men from these and other tribes - Crow, Chippewa and Devil’s Lake Sioux - were integrated into the fighting forces and not maintained in segregated units like their African American and Puerto Rican compatriots. At home, however, they suffered the same indignity of societal discrimination faced by other minorities compounded by vilification in popular Hollywood cowboy and Indian movies that pervaded the entertainment scene in the 1950s.

    An estimated 10,000 American Indians served in the Korean War, a percentage that far exceeded their numbers in the general population. Battle-experienced troops from World War II joined with new recruits to fight communist aggression in Korea.  Their officers, perhaps because they believed what they saw in the movies, tended to give them the most dangerous assignments.  

    Three men of American Indian ancestry earned the Medal of Honor for service in the Korean War: Charles George; Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.; and Raymond Harvey. Though from different tribes, each man put his own life in jeopardy to save the lives of his brothers in arms. George and Red Cloud, Jr. were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. “When they were in those bunkers or those foxholes, there was no black, yellow, red or white.  It was just covering each other’s backs,” said Arthur Holden, deputy director of the National Congress of America.

    In addition, three high-ranking officers went on to long, successful military careers.  The first Indian to graduate from the Naval Academy, Joseph J. “Jocko” Clark, a Cherokee, was the vice admiral in charge of the Navy’s 7th Fleet during the Korean War.  He led behind-the-lines raids that he termed “Cherokee Strikes,” employing aircraft from the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.  Major General Hal L. Muldrow, a Choctaw, commanded the 45th Infantry Division’s artillery division and Otwa Autry, a Creek, who later became a brigadier general, led the 189th Field Artillery Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division as it delivered some of the heaviest artillery fire during the battles for Hills 191 (T-Bone Ridge) and Hill 275 (Old Baldy) during the summer of 1952.

    “There was a camaraderie that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime,” said Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne), the former U.S. senator and a U.S. Air Force Veteran of the Korean War. This is the proud history the nation celebrates during Native American/Alaskan Native Heritage Month.  What started in 1915 as an initiative to set aside one day to recognize the significant contributions of Native Americans to the growth and development of the United States has evolved to a month-long recognition and designation. 

    In 1990 President George H.W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”  Subsequent proclamations have been issued annually since 1994. Today, there are more than 190,000 Native American military veterans, reflecting the highest record of service per capita when compared with other ethnic groups. 

    The spirit of Mitchell Red Cloud lives on at Camp Red Cloud located in Ujeongbu, South Korea, which lies between Seoul and the Demilitarized Zone.  The Army camp was renamed Camp Red Cloud on Armed Forces Day in 1957 by Lieutenant General (LTG) Arthur G. Trudeau not long after his return to Korea as commander of I Corps.  LTG Trudeau had a long and distinguished career in the Army, including command of the 7th Infantry Division in Korea during the Korean War in 1952 at places such as Old Baldy, T-bone, Alligator Jaws and Pork Chop Hill. At the naming ceremony, LTG Trudeau said, “How wonderful it is that an American, a Native American Indian, whose ancestors lost their country to us, came over here to fight for the freedom of the native men of Asia.”

    Today Camp Red Cloud is home to the 2nd Infantry Division (2ID) which recorded the highest casualty rate in the Korean War.  The 2ID wears the Indian Head patch with the motto, “Second to None.”

     

     

     

     

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    The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in the U.S. military other than what has been represented in Hollywood-produced films.  Recent movies about the Navajo code talkers of World War II, Marine Corporal Ira Hayes (a Pima) in the raising of the flag on Iwo Jima, and the Black Seminole scouts who rode with the cavalry and the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1890’s as the nation continued its westward expansion, have helped educate citizens about the noble military service of this country’s indigenous people. 

    It should be noted, however, that Native Americans’ service to the US military predates the Revolutionary War. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as early as the 18th century.  In 1778, America’s first Commander in Chief, George Washington, observed, “I think they (Indians) can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops.” 

    Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of Native American soldiers.  They were recruited by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898, alongside the Buffalo Soldiers.  In 1916, scouts accompanied General John J. Pershing’s expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. At the advent of World War I, more than 12,000 American Indians volunteered for military service though they were not considered citizens. 

    The mental and spiritual qualities required for successful military service… strength, bravery, honor and wisdom…are inherent in the Indian warrior tradition, which continues to this day in the more than 156,000 men and women of Native American heritage who wear the nation’s uniform.   

    Since 1869 twenty seven military members of American Indian/Alaskan Native heritage have received the Medal of Honor, many of whom died protecting their comrades. Native Americans who have earned the nation’s highest military award come from a number of different tribes, including: Pawnee; White Mountain Apache; Apache; Black Seminole; Muscogee; Cherokee; Ho Chuck; Chickasaw; Choctaw; and Sioux. During the Korean War, men from these and other tribes - Crow, Chippewa and Devil’s Lake Sioux - were integrated into the fighting forces and not maintained in segregated units like their African American and Puerto Rican compatriots. At home, however, they suffered the same indignity of societal discrimination faced by other minorities compounded by vilification in popular Hollywood cowboy and Indian movies that pervaded the entertainment scene in the 1950s.

    An estimated 10,000 American Indians served in the Korean War, a percentage that far exceeded their numbers in the general population. Battle-experienced troops from World War II joined with new recruits to fight communist aggression in Korea.  Their officers, perhaps because they believed what they saw in the movies, tended to give them the most dangerous assignments.  

    Three men of American Indian ancestry earned the Medal of Honor for service in the Korean War: Charles George; Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.; and Raymond Harvey. Though from different tribes, each man put his own life in jeopardy to save the lives of his brothers in arms. George and Red Cloud, Jr. were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. “When they were in those bunkers or those foxholes, there was no black, yellow, red or white.  It was just covering each other’s backs,” said Arthur Holden, deputy director of the National Congress of America.

    In addition, three high-ranking officers went on to long, successful military careers.  The first Indian to graduate from the Naval Academy, Joseph J. “Jocko” Clark, a Cherokee, was the vice admiral in charge of the Navy’s 7th Fleet during the Korean War.  He led behind-the-lines raids that he termed “Cherokee Strikes,” employing aircraft from the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.  Major General Hal L. Muldrow, a Choctaw, commanded the 45th Infantry Division’s artillery division and Otwa Autry, a Creek, who later became a brigadier general, led the 189th Field Artillery Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division as it delivered some of the heaviest artillery fire during the battles for Hills 191 (T-Bone Ridge) and Hill 275 (Old Baldy) during the summer of 1952.

    “There was a camaraderie that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime,” said Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne), the former U.S. senator and a U.S. Air Force Veteran of the Korean War. This is the proud history the nation celebrates during Native American/Alaskan Native Heritage Month.  What started in 1915 as an initiative to set aside one day to recognize the significant contributions of Native Americans to the growth and development of the United States has evolved to a month-long recognition and designation. 

    In 1990 President George H.W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”  Subsequent proclamations have been issued annually since 1994. Today, there are more than 190,000 Native American military veterans, reflecting the highest record of service per capita when compared with other ethnic groups. 

    The spirit of Mitchell Red Cloud lives on at Camp Red Cloud located in Ujeongbu, South Korea, which lies between Seoul and the Demilitarized Zone.  The Army camp was renamed Camp Red Cloud on Armed Forces Day in 1957 by Lieutenant General (LTG) Arthur G. Trudeau not long after his return to Korea as commander of I Corps.  LTG Trudeau had a long and distinguished career in the Army, including command of the 7th Infantry Division in Korea during the Korean War in 1952 at places such as Old Baldy, T-bone, Alligator Jaws and Pork Chop Hill. At the naming ceremony, LTG Trudeau said, “How wonderful it is that an American, a Native American Indian, whose ancestors lost their country to us, came over here to fight for the freedom of the native men of Asia.”

    Today Camp Red Cloud is home to the 2nd Infantry Division (2ID) which recorded the highest casualty rate in the Korean War.  The 2ID wears the Indian Head patch with the motto, “Second to None.”

     

     

     

     

    [#printed] => 1 ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => region ) [#region] => content [#printed] => 1 [#children] =>

    The average American knows very little about the service of Native Americans in the U.S. military other than what has been represented in Hollywood-produced films.  Recent movies about the Navajo code talkers of World War II, Marine Corporal Ira Hayes (a Pima) in the raising of the flag on Iwo Jima, and the Black Seminole scouts who rode with the cavalry and the Buffalo Soldiers in the 1890’s as the nation continued its westward expansion, have helped educate citizens about the noble military service of this country’s indigenous people. 

    It should be noted, however, that Native Americans’ service to the US military predates the Revolutionary War. Their courage, determination, and fighting spirit were recognized by American military leaders as early as the 18th century.  In 1778, America’s first Commander in Chief, George Washington, observed, “I think they (Indians) can be made of excellent use, as scouts and light troops.” 

    Scouting the enemy was recognized as a particular skill of Native American soldiers.  They were recruited by Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898, alongside the Buffalo Soldiers.  In 1916, scouts accompanied General John J. Pershing’s expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. At the advent of World War I, more than 12,000 American Indians volunteered for military service though they were not considered citizens. 

    The mental and spiritual qualities required for successful military service… strength, bravery, honor and wisdom…are inherent in the Indian warrior tradition, which continues to this day in the more than 156,000 men and women of Native American heritage who wear the nation’s uniform.   

    Since 1869 twenty seven military members of American Indian/Alaskan Native heritage have received the Medal of Honor, many of whom died protecting their comrades. Native Americans who have earned the nation’s highest military award come from a number of different tribes, including: Pawnee; White Mountain Apache; Apache; Black Seminole; Muscogee; Cherokee; Ho Chuck; Chickasaw; Choctaw; and Sioux. During the Korean War, men from these and other tribes - Crow, Chippewa and Devil’s Lake Sioux - were integrated into the fighting forces and not maintained in segregated units like their African American and Puerto Rican compatriots. At home, however, they suffered the same indignity of societal discrimination faced by other minorities compounded by vilification in popular Hollywood cowboy and Indian movies that pervaded the entertainment scene in the 1950s.

    An estimated 10,000 American Indians served in the Korean War, a percentage that far exceeded their numbers in the general population. Battle-experienced troops from World War II joined with new recruits to fight communist aggression in Korea.  Their officers, perhaps because they believed what they saw in the movies, tended to give them the most dangerous assignments.  

    Three men of American Indian ancestry earned the Medal of Honor for service in the Korean War: Charles George; Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.; and Raymond Harvey. Though from different tribes, each man put his own life in jeopardy to save the lives of his brothers in arms. George and Red Cloud, Jr. were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. “When they were in those bunkers or those foxholes, there was no black, yellow, red or white.  It was just covering each other’s backs,” said Arthur Holden, deputy director of the National Congress of America.

    In addition, three high-ranking officers went on to long, successful military careers.  The first Indian to graduate from the Naval Academy, Joseph J. “Jocko” Clark, a Cherokee, was the vice admiral in charge of the Navy’s 7th Fleet during the Korean War.  He led behind-the-lines raids that he termed “Cherokee Strikes,” employing aircraft from the Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.  Major General Hal L. Muldrow, a Choctaw, commanded the 45th Infantry Division’s artillery division and Otwa Autry, a Creek, who later became a brigadier general, led the 189th Field Artillery Battalion of the 45th Infantry Division as it delivered some of the heaviest artillery fire during the battles for Hills 191 (T-Bone Ridge) and Hill 275 (Old Baldy) during the summer of 1952.

    “There was a camaraderie that transcends ethnicity when you serve your country overseas in wartime,” said Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne), the former U.S. senator and a U.S. Air Force Veteran of the Korean War. This is the proud history the nation celebrates during Native American/Alaskan Native Heritage Month.  What started in 1915 as an initiative to set aside one day to recognize the significant contributions of Native Americans to the growth and development of the United States has evolved to a month-long recognition and designation. 

    In 1990 President George H.W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 “National American Indian Heritage Month.”  Subsequent proclamations have been issued annually since 1994. Today, there are more than 190,000 Native American military veterans, reflecting the highest record of service per capita when compared with other ethnic groups. 

    The spirit of Mitchell Red Cloud lives on at Camp Red Cloud located in Ujeongbu, South Korea, which lies between Seoul and the Demilitarized Zone.  The Army camp was renamed Camp Red Cloud on Armed Forces Day in 1957 by Lieutenant General (LTG) Arthur G. Trudeau not long after his return to Korea as commander of I Corps.  LTG Trudeau had a long and distinguished career in the Army, including command of the 7th Infantry Division in Korea during the Korean War in 1952 at places such as Old Baldy, T-bone, Alligator Jaws and Pork Chop Hill. At the naming ceremony, LTG Trudeau said, “How wonderful it is that an American, a Native American Indian, whose ancestors lost their country to us, came over here to fight for the freedom of the native men of Asia.”

    Today Camp Red Cloud is home to the 2nd Infantry Division (2ID) which recorded the highest casualty rate in the Korean War.  The 2ID wears the Indian Head patch with the motto, “Second to None.”

     

     

     

     

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[#tree] => [#parents] => Array ( ) [#validate] => Array ( ) [#theme] => Array ( [0] => search_block_form [1] => search_box ) [#processed] => [#defaults_loaded] => 1 [#required] => [#attributes] => Array ( ) [#title_display] => before [#array_parents] => Array ( ) [#contextual_links] => Array ( [block] => Array ( [0] => admin/structure/block/manage [1] => Array ( [0] => search [1] => form ) ) ) [#block] => stdClass Object ( [bid] => 93 [module] => search [delta] => form [theme] => kw60_inq [status] => 1 [weight] => -11 [region] => footer [custom] => 0 [visibility] => 0 [pages] => [title] => [cache] => -1 [subject] => ) [#weight] => 4 [search_block_form] => Array ( [#type] => textfield [#title] => Search [#title_display] => invisible [#size] => 15 [#default_value] => [#attributes] => Array ( [title] => Enter the terms you wish to search for. ) [#input] => 1 [#maxlength] => 128 [#autocomplete_path] => [#process] => Array ( [0] => ajax_process_form ) [#theme] => textfield [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => form_element ) [#pre_render] => Array ( [0] => ctools_dependent_pre_render ) [#defaults_loaded] => 1 [#tree] => [#parents] => Array ( [0] => search_block_form ) [#array_parents] => Array ( [0] => search_block_form ) [#weight] => 0 [#processed] => 1 [#required] => [#id] => edit-search-block-form--2 [#name] => search_block_form [#value] => [#ajax_processed] => [#sorted] => 1 ) [form_build_id] => Array ( [#type] => hidden [#value] => form-_EVAMtFGq4Vj_Upy0OsOTPugb-Ik0AbjS3le1hKHh3c [#id] => form-_EVAMtFGq4Vj_Upy0OsOTPugb-Ik0AbjS3le1hKHh3c [#name] => form_build_id [#input] => 1 [#process] => Array ( [0] => ajax_process_form ) [#theme] => hidden [#defaults_loaded] => 1 [#tree] => [#parents] => Array ( [0] => form_build_id ) [#array_parents] => Array ( [0] => form_build_id ) [#weight] => 0.002 [#processed] => 1 [#required] => [#attributes] => Array ( ) [#title_display] => before [#ajax_processed] => [#sorted] => 1 ) [form_id] => Array ( [#type] => hidden [#value] => search_block_form [#id] => edit-search-block-form [#input] => 1 [#process] => Array ( [0] => ajax_process_form ) [#theme] => hidden [#defaults_loaded] => 1 [#tree] => [#parents] => Array ( [0] => form_id ) [#array_parents] => Array ( [0] => form_id ) [#weight] => 0.003 [#processed] => 1 [#required] => [#attributes] => Array ( ) [#title_display] => before [#name] => form_id [#ajax_processed] => [#sorted] => 1 ) [actions] => Array ( [#type] => actions [submit] => Array ( [#type] => submit [#value] => Search [#input] => 1 [#name] => op [#button_type] => submit [#executes_submit_callback] => 1 [#limit_validation_errors] => [#process] => Array ( [0] => ajax_process_form ) [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => button ) [#defaults_loaded] => 1 [#tree] => [#parents] => Array ( [0] => submit ) [#array_parents] => Array ( [0] => actions [1] => submit ) [#weight] => 0 [#processed] => 1 [#required] => [#attributes] => Array ( ) [#title_display] => before [#id] => edit-submit [#ajax_processed] => [#sorted] => 1 ) [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => container ) [#process] => Array ( [0] => form_process_actions [1] => form_process_container ) [#weight] => 100 [#defaults_loaded] => 1 [#tree] => [#parents] => Array ( [0] => actions ) [#array_parents] => Array ( [0] => actions ) [#processed] => 1 [#required] => [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => form-actions ) ) [#title_display] => before [#id] => edit-actions [#sorted] => 1 ) [#sorted] => 1 [#children] => [#printed] => 1 ) [menu_menu-footer-menu] => Array ( [514] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__menu_footer_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => first [1] => last [2] => leaf ) ) [#title] => FAQ [#href] => node/285 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [title] => Frequently Asked Questions [id] => faq ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => menu-footer-menu [mlid] => 514 [plid] => 0 [link_path] => node/285 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => FAQ [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [title] => Frequently Asked Questions [id] => faq ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => 0 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 514 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => FAQ [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/285 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [title] => Frequently Asked Questions [id] => faq ) ) ) [#children] =>
  • FAQ
  • [#printed] => 1 ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => menu_tree__menu_footer_menu [1] => block ) [#contextual_links] => Array ( [menu] => Array ( [0] => admin/structure/menu/manage [1] => Array ( [0] => menu-footer-menu ) ) [block] => Array ( [0] => admin/structure/block/manage [1] => Array ( [0] => menu [1] => menu-footer-menu ) ) ) [#block] => stdClass Object ( [bid] => 103 [module] => menu [delta] => menu-footer-menu [theme] => kw60_inq [status] => 1 [weight] => -10 [region] => footer [custom] => 0 [visibility] => 0 [pages] => [title] => [cache] => -1 [subject] => ) [#weight] => 5 [#children] => [#printed] => 1 ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => region ) [#region] => footer [#printed] => 1 [#children] => ) [sidebar_blog] => Array ( [views_enterprise_blog-block_2] => Array ( [#markup] => [#contextual_links] => Array ( [views_ui] => Array ( [0] => admin/structure/views/view [1] => Array ( [0] => enterprise_blog ) ) [block] => Array ( [0] => admin/structure/block/manage [1] => Array ( [0] => views [1] => enterprise_blog-block_2 ) ) ) [#views_contextual_links_info] => Array ( [views_ui] => Array ( [location] => block [view_name] => enterprise_blog [view_display_id] => block_2 ) ) [#block] => stdClass Object ( [bid] => 208 [module] => views [delta] => enterprise_blog-block_2 [theme] => kw60_inq [status] => 1 [weight] => -18 [region] => sidebar_blog [custom] => 0 [visibility] => 0 [pages] => [title] => Blog Archives [cache] => -1 [subject] => Blog Archives ) [#weight] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => block ) [#type] => markup [#pre_render] => Array ( [0] => drupal_pre_render_markup [1] => ctools_dependent_pre_render ) [#children] => [#printed] => 1 ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => region ) [#region] => sidebar_blog [#printed] => 1 [#children] => ) [page_top] => Array ( [toolbar] => Array ( [#pre_render] => Array ( [0] => toolbar_pre_render [1] => shortcut_toolbar_pre_render ) [#access] => [toolbar_drawer] => Array ( ) ) ) [#post_render] => Array ( [0] => ctools_page_token_processing ) [#children] => [branding] => Array ( ) [highlighted] => Array ( ) [help] => Array ( ) [postscript] => Array ( ) [sidebar_rightleft] => Array ( ) [sidebar_rightright] => Array ( ) [sidebar_posts] => Array ( ) [dashboard_main] => Array ( ) [dashboard_sidebar] => Array ( ) [dashboard_inactive] => Array ( ) )