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Armor of the Korean War

It is a dictum of modern war that armor and infantry be employed as a team in battle. Infantrymen and tanks provide mutual support and protection. Tanks without accompanying infantry are vulnerable to enemy tank-killer weapons; infantry without accompanying tanks is vulnerable to small arms, machine guns and other direct-fire weapons. Infantrymen protect the tanks from the tank killers and the tanks engage enemy direct-fire weapons. Armor offensive tactics also envision armor employed in large formations, en masse, to overwhelm an enemy and make deep penetrations.

But armor in Korea was rarely used in this fashion, especially after the war became one of position and stalemate. The mountainous terrain and narrow valleys of Korea, and, in the spring and summer, flooded rice paddies, made it difficult to employ more than a few tanks in one location. Attempts to employ them in larger concentrations invariably led to a number of the tanks becoming bogged down. The North Korean People’s Army (NKPA), particularly early in the war, failed to send infantry along with its tanks in the attack. As a result, once the United States and Republic of Korea Army (ROKA, South Koreans) obtained the 3.5-inch bazooka rocket launcher, communist tank losses soared. This, coupled with heavy armor losses from United Nations Command (UNC) air attacks, ended the threat of NKPA armor.

Both UNC and communist tanks were often employed for long-range, pinpoint sniping fire against enemy positions. Worked to the tops of hills, these mobile “pill boxes” could be dug in, and they proved highly effective in that role.

The NKPA and Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPVA, Chinese communist) during the Korean War employed the Russian-built T-34/85 tank, reputed to be one of the best tanks in World War II. They also utilized the BA-64 armored car. United Nations (U.N.) forces employed the U.S. M-24 light tank; the M4A3 (Sherman), with some variants; the M-26 (Pershing); the M-46 (Patton) tanks; and the British Churchill, Centurion, and some Cromwell tanks. Early in the war, South Korean and U.S. forces used a few M-8 (Greyhound) armored cars. The U.S. Army also used the M-29C Weasel cargo carrier, M-39 armored personnel carriers (APCs), and M-20 armored cars.

Because there were a number of models and variants for each of the tanks discussed below, it is difficult to list specifications that are true of each major type of tank. What follows are typical specifications and characteristics and do not necessarily describe mutations resulting from model changes and other variants.

North Korea & China



T-34/85. This model evolved from the T-34/76, which was equipped with a 76-mm gun. The North Korean People’s Army was reported to have 150 T34/85 tanks at the beginning of the Korean War.

Crew: 5 men

Main gun: 85 mm

Machine guns: two 7.62 mm (one in bow and one coaxially with the main gun)

Weight (combat loaded): 35 short tons

Length (not including gun): 19 feet 7 inches

Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

Height to top of turret: 7 feet 11 inches

Armor: turret front, 90 mm; hull front, 47 mm; hull rear, 60 mm

Ammunition carried: 55 rounds for main gun; 2,745 rounds for 7.62.

Engine: 12-cylinder diesel, 493 hp

Maximum speed: 31–34 mph

Armor penetration at 500 yards: 114 mm

Range: 86 miles

Fording depth: 4 feet 4 inches

Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 5 inches

Trench crossing: 8 feet 2 inches
United States



M4A3 and M4A3E8 (Sherman)



This tank was the mainstay of U.S. armor during World War II. There were many models and variants of the basic design, including dozers, 105-mm howitzers, rocket launchers, retrievers, flamethrowers, etc. M4A3E8 models carried a small metal box affixed to the right rear, containing an EE-8 sound-powered telephone, enabling an infantryman to communicate with the tank commander.

Crew: 5 men

Main gun: 76 mm

Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one of which was mounted in the bow and the other coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber antiaircraft gun, mounted on the top of the turret

Weight (combat loaded): 37 tons

Length (not including gun): 24 feet

Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

Height to top of turret: 9 feet 9 inches

Armor: turret front, 2.5 inches, plus a gun shield of 3.5 inches (6 inches overall); hull front, tapered from 2.5 inches at the top to 4.5 inches at the bottom; hull sides and rear, 1.5 inches

Ammunition carried: officially, 71 rounds for main gun; 6,150 rounds for .30 caliber; 600 rounds for .50 caliber

Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

Maximum speed: 26 mph

Armor penetration: HVAP (High velocity armor piercing) 5.3 inches at 1000 yards; other ammunition, 3.5 inches at 1,000 yards

Range: 100 miles

Fording depth: 3 feet

Vertical obstacle: 2 feet

Trench crossing: 7 feet 6 inches

A tank retriever removes the damaged turret from a M4A3 Sherman tank
M-26 (Pershing)



The M-26 was developed near the end of World War II and is classified as a heavy tank.

Crew: 5 men

Main gun: 90 mm

Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow and one coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

Weight (combat loaded): 46 tons

Length (not including gun): 21 feet 2 inches

Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 1 inch

Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum elsewhere, 13 mm

Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90-mm gun; 5,000 rounds of .30 caliber; 550 rounds of .50 caliber

Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

Maximum speed: 25 mph

Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

Range: 100 miles

Fording depth: 4 feet

Vertical obstacle: 3 feet 10 inches

Trench crossing: 7 feet 11 inches


An M26 Pershing tank grinds along a narrow mountain road
M-46 (Patton)



The M-46, an improved model of the M-26, was developed just after the end of World War II.

Crew: 5 men

Main gun: 90 mm

Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one mounted in the bow, the other coaxially with the main gun; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

Weight (combat loaded): 48.5 tons

Length (not including gun): 20 feet 10 inches

Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

Height to top of turret: 9 feet 3 inches

Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum of 13 mm elsewhere

Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90 mm; 5,000 of .30 caliber and 550 rounds of .50 caliber

Engine: Continental 810-hp gasoline

Maximum speed: 31–37 mph

Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

Range: 80 miles

Fording depth: 4 feet

Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

Trench crossing: 8 feet 6 inches
M-24 (Chaffee)



This was a light tank, employed by reconnaissance units. However, in the U.S. Army divisions in Japan before the war, it was the only type of tank available and all of them were in what was supposed to be the divisional heavy tank battalions. Each division had about 15 to 17 M-24 tanks at the time.

Crew: 5 men

Main gun: 75 mm

Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow, the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft mounted atop turret

Weight (combat loaded): 20.25 tons

Length (not including gun): 16 feet 6 inches

Width (overall): 9 feet 8 inches

Height (to top of turret): 8 feet 1 inch

Armor: 38 mm turret front; minimum of 10 mm elsewhere

Ammunition carried: 48 rounds for 75 mm; 3,750 rounds for .30 caliber; 440 rounds for .50 caliber

Engine: two Cadillac V-8s, 110 hp, gasoline

Maximum speed: 35 mph

Armor penetration: 70 mm at 500 yards

Range: 110 miles

Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

Trench crossing: 8 feet
M8 Armored Car



This was the heaviest armored vehicle in the ROK Army at the beginning of the war. It had 27 of them. U.S. reconnaissance units also had a few of these cars at the time.

Crew: 4 men

Main gun: 37 mm

Machine guns: one .30-caliber mounted coaxially; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

Weight (combat loaded): 8.75 tons

Length: 16 feet 5 inches

Width (overall): 8 feet 4 inches

Height (including machine gun): 7 feet 4½ inches

Armor: 20-mm turret front; minimum of 3 mm elsewhere

Ammunition carried: 80 rounds for 37-mm; approximately 3,000 for .30 caliber and 400 rounds for the .50 caliber

Engine: Hercules 6 cylinder gasoline, 79 hp

Maximum speed: 56 mph

Armor penetration: 48 mm at 500 yards

Range: 300–350 miles

Fording depth: 2 feet 8 inches

Vertical obstacle: 1 foot
 
British



United Kingdom forces fighting in Korea employed the Churchill Infantry tank and the heavy Centurion. The British also used the A27M Cromwell and A34 Comet tanks in Korea. Canadians brought M10 Achilles 17-pounder self-propelled guns but soon replaced them with U.S. Sherman tanks.



Churchill VII Infantry Tank



Variants included ones mounting a 95-mm howitzer, flamethrower, bridge layer, mortar and recovery vehicles. Most used in Korea were the Mark III.

Crew: 5 men

Main gun: 75 mm

Machine guns: two light, one mounted forward in the hull, the other coaxially with the main gun

Weight (combat loaded): 44.8 tons

Length (not including gun): 24 feet 5 inches

Width (overall): 9 feet

Height (to top of turret): 11 feet 4 inches

Armor: turret front, 152 mm; minimum 25 mm elsewhere

Ammunition carried: 84 rounds for 75 mm; amount for machine guns unknown

Engine: Bedford twin-six gasoline, 350 hp

Maximum speed: 15.5 mph

Armor penetration: 68 mm at 500 yards

Range: 90 miles

Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 6 inches

Trench crossing: 10 feet
Centurion Medium (Cruiser) Mk-5.



Variants include 105-mm gun, armored recovery, bridge layer and 165-mm demolition charge projector engineer. Its heavy weight (58 tons) and width (11 feet) made it too heavy and too wide for most bridges in South Korea.

Crew: 4 men

Main gun: 20 pounder (83.4-mm) gun

Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one on commander’s cupola and one coaxially with main gun. In addition this model carried two six-barreled smoke dischargers.

Weight (combat loaded): 58 tons

Length (not including gun): 24 feet 9½ inches

Width (overall): 11 feet 11½ inches

Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 7¾ inches

Armor: 152 mm on turret front

Ammunition carried: 64 rounds for 20 pounder; 4,250 rounds for machine guns

Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor 4B, 12-cylinder gasoline, 650 hp

Maximum speed: 21.5 mph

Armor penetration: approximately 120 mm at 500 yards

Range: 60 miles

Fording depth: 4 feet 9 inches (could be prepared to ford 9 feet)

Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

Trench crossing: 11 feet
Cromwell A27M Reconnaissance



Originally produced near the end of World War II and outclassed by German armor from the start of its production, it was nonetheless very reliable.

Crew: 5 men

Main gun: 75 mm

Machine guns: two light, one firing forward from the turret, the other in the bow

Weight: 28 tons

Armor: 76 mm

Engine: Rolls Royce V-12 Meteor, 600 hp

Maximum speed: 40 mph
Comet A34 Heavy Cruiser



The Comet entered service immediately after the Cromwell at the end of World War II.

Crew: 5 men

Main gun: 76.2 mm, but known as a 77 mm

Machine guns: two light, one coaxial and the other in the bow

Weight: 33 tons

Armor: 101 mm

Engine: 600 hp

Maximum speed: 29 mph

—Uzal W. Ent

Sources

Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu,(1961).

Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War II,(1969).

Foss, Christopher F. Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, (1971).

Hunnicutt, Richard & P. Sherman, (1978).

Macksey, Kenneth, and John H. Batchelor. Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle,(1976).

Special thanks for ABC-Clio Inc., for permission to reprint from Encyclopedia of the Korean War, (2000)


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[description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/334 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [712] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Written Histories [#href] => node/429 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 712 [plid] => 711 [link_path] => node/429 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Written Histories [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -49 [depth] => 3 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 363 [p2] => 711 [p3] => 712 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] 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[p1] => 363 [p2] => 711 [p3] => 998 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Share Your Story [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/500 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => menu_tree__main_menu ) ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 711 [plid] => 363 [link_path] => node/334 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Personal History [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -39 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 363 [p2] => 711 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Personal History [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/334 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [429] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => last [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Bibliography [#href] => node/273 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 429 [plid] => 363 [link_path] => node/273 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Bibliography [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -36 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 363 [p2] => 429 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Bibliography [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/273 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => menu_tree__main_menu ) ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 363 [plid] => 0 [link_path] => node/261 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => History [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -48 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 363 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => History [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => 1 [access] => 1 [href] => node/261 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => active-trail ) ) ) ) [#children] =>
  • History
  • [#printed] => 1 ) [418] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => expanded ) ) [#title] => Outreach [#href] => node/435 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( [426] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => first [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => KW60 Events [#href] => node/435 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 426 [plid] => 418 [link_path] => node/435 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => KW60 Events [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -50 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 418 [p2] => 426 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => KW60 Events [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/435 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [888] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Become a KW60 Ambassador [#href] => node/480 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [title] => Contact Us ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 888 [plid] => 418 [link_path] => node/480 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Become a KW60 Ambassador [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [title] => Contact Us ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -48 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 418 [p2] => 888 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Become a KW60 Ambassador [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/480 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [title] => Contact Us ) ) ) ) [719] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => KW60 Ambassadors [#href] => node/451 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 719 [plid] => 418 [link_path] => node/451 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => KW60 Ambassadors [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -47 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 418 [p2] => 719 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => KW60 Ambassadors [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/451 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [993] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => last [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Forums [#href] => forum/6 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 993 [plid] => 418 [link_path] => forum/6 [router_path] => forum/% [link_title] => Forums [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -42 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 418 [p2] => 993 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => Array ( [1] => forum_forum_load ) [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => user_access [access_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;s:14:"access content";} [page_callback] => advanced_forum_page [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => forum/% [title] => Forums [title_callback] => t [title_arguments] => [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [href] => forum/6 [access] => 1 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => menu_tree__main_menu ) ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 418 [plid] => 0 [link_path] => node/435 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Outreach [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -47 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 418 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Outreach [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/435 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) [#children] =>
  • Outreach
  • [#printed] => 1 ) [758] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => expanded ) ) [#title] => Media & Press [#href] => node/267 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( [844] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => first [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Press Releases [#href] => node/267 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 844 [plid] => 758 [link_path] => node/267 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Press Releases [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -50 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 844 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Press Releases [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/267 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [427] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => KW60 Newsletter [#href] => node/271 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 427 [plid] => 758 [link_path] => node/271 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => KW60 Newsletter [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -49 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 427 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => KW60 Newsletter [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/271 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [982] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Latest News [#href] => blog [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 982 [plid] => 758 [link_path] => blog [router_path] => blog [link_title] => Latest News [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => system [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -48 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 982 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => views_access [access_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;a:2:{i:0;s:16:"views_check_perm";i:1;a:1:{i:0;s:14:"access content";}}} [page_callback] => views_page [page_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:15:"enterprise_blog";i:1;s:4:"page";} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => blog [title] => Latest News [title_callback] => t [title_arguments] => [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [href] => blog [access] => 1 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [698] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Press Coverage [#href] => node/460 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 698 [plid] => 758 [link_path] => node/460 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Press Coverage [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -46 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 698 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Press Coverage [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/460 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [422] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => last [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Public Service Announcements [#href] => node/266 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 422 [plid] => 758 [link_path] => node/266 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Public Service Announcements [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -45 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 422 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Public Service Announcements [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/266 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => menu_tree__main_menu ) ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 758 [plid] => 0 [link_path] => node/267 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Media & Press [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -46 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Media & Press [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/267 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) [#children] =>
  • Media & Press
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  • Education
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  • Veteran Services
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  • Contact Us
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    It is a dictum of modern war that armor and infantry be employed as a team in battle. Infantrymen and tanks provide mutual support and protection. Tanks without accompanying infantry are vulnerable to enemy tank-killer weapons; infantry without accompanying tanks is vulnerable to small arms, machine guns and other direct-fire weapons. Infantrymen protect the tanks from the tank killers and the tanks engage enemy direct-fire weapons. Armor offensive tactics also envision armor employed in large formations, en masse, to overwhelm an enemy and make deep penetrations.

    But armor in Korea was rarely used in this fashion, especially after the war became one of position and stalemate. The mountainous terrain and narrow valleys of Korea, and, in the spring and summer, flooded rice paddies, made it difficult to employ more than a few tanks in one location. Attempts to employ them in larger concentrations invariably led to a number of the tanks becoming bogged down. The North Korean People’s Army (NKPA), particularly early in the war, failed to send infantry along with its tanks in the attack. As a result, once the United States and Republic of Korea Army (ROKA, South Koreans) obtained the 3.5-inch bazooka rocket launcher, communist tank losses soared. This, coupled with heavy armor losses from United Nations Command (UNC) air attacks, ended the threat of NKPA armor.

    Both UNC and communist tanks were often employed for long-range, pinpoint sniping fire against enemy positions. Worked to the tops of hills, these mobile “pill boxes” could be dug in, and they proved highly effective in that role.

    The NKPA and Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPVA, Chinese communist) during the Korean War employed the Russian-built T-34/85 tank, reputed to be one of the best tanks in World War II. They also utilized the BA-64 armored car. United Nations (U.N.) forces employed the U.S. M-24 light tank; the M4A3 (Sherman), with some variants; the M-26 (Pershing); the M-46 (Patton) tanks; and the British Churchill, Centurion, and some Cromwell tanks. Early in the war, South Korean and U.S. forces used a few M-8 (Greyhound) armored cars. The U.S. Army also used the M-29C Weasel cargo carrier, M-39 armored personnel carriers (APCs), and M-20 armored cars.

    Because there were a number of models and variants for each of the tanks discussed below, it is difficult to list specifications that are true of each major type of tank. What follows are typical specifications and characteristics and do not necessarily describe mutations resulting from model changes and other variants.

    North Korea & China

    T-34/85. This model evolved from the T-34/76, which was equipped with a 76-mm gun. The North Korean People’s Army was reported to have 150 T34/85 tanks at the beginning of the Korean War.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 85 mm
    Machine guns: two 7.62 mm (one in bow and one coaxially with the main gun)
    Weight (combat loaded): 35 short tons
    Length (not including gun): 19 feet 7 inches
    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches
    Height to top of turret: 7 feet 11 inches
    Armor: turret front, 90 mm; hull front, 47 mm; hull rear, 60 mm
    Ammunition carried: 55 rounds for main gun; 2,745 rounds for 7.62.
    Engine: 12-cylinder diesel, 493 hp
    Maximum speed: 31–34 mph
    Armor penetration at 500 yards: 114 mm
    Range: 86 miles
    Fording depth: 4 feet 4 inches
    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 5 inches
    Trench crossing: 8 feet 2 inches
    United States

    M4A3 and M4A3E8 (Sherman)

    This tank was the mainstay of U.S. armor during World War II. There were many models and variants of the basic design, including dozers, 105-mm howitzers, rocket launchers, retrievers, flamethrowers, etc. M4A3E8 models carried a small metal box affixed to the right rear, containing an EE-8 sound-powered telephone, enabling an infantryman to communicate with the tank commander.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 76 mm
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one of which was mounted in the bow and the other coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber antiaircraft gun, mounted on the top of the turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 37 tons
    Length (not including gun): 24 feet
    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches
    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 9 inches
    Armor: turret front, 2.5 inches, plus a gun shield of 3.5 inches (6 inches overall); hull front, tapered from 2.5 inches at the top to 4.5 inches at the bottom; hull sides and rear, 1.5 inches
    Ammunition carried: officially, 71 rounds for main gun; 6,150 rounds for .30 caliber; 600 rounds for .50 caliber
    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline
    Maximum speed: 26 mph
    Armor penetration: HVAP (High velocity armor piercing) 5.3 inches at 1000 yards; other ammunition, 3.5 inches at 1,000 yards
    Range: 100 miles
    Fording depth: 3 feet
    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet
    Trench crossing: 7 feet 6 inches
    A tank retriever removes the damaged turret from a M4A3 Sherman tank
    M-26 (Pershing)

    The M-26 was developed near the end of World War II and is classified as a heavy tank.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 90 mm
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow and one coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 46 tons
    Length (not including gun): 21 feet 2 inches
    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches
    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 1 inch
    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum elsewhere, 13 mm
    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90-mm gun; 5,000 rounds of .30 caliber; 550 rounds of .50 caliber
    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline
    Maximum speed: 25 mph
    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards
    Range: 100 miles
    Fording depth: 4 feet
    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet 10 inches
    Trench crossing: 7 feet 11 inches

    An M26 Pershing tank grinds along a narrow mountain road
    M-46 (Patton)

    The M-46, an improved model of the M-26, was developed just after the end of World War II.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 90 mm
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one mounted in the bow, the other coaxially with the main gun; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 48.5 tons
    Length (not including gun): 20 feet 10 inches
    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches
    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 3 inches
    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum of 13 mm elsewhere
    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90 mm; 5,000 of .30 caliber and 550 rounds of .50 caliber
    Engine: Continental 810-hp gasoline
    Maximum speed: 31–37 mph
    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards
    Range: 80 miles
    Fording depth: 4 feet
    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet
    Trench crossing: 8 feet 6 inches
    M-24 (Chaffee)

    This was a light tank, employed by reconnaissance units. However, in the U.S. Army divisions in Japan before the war, it was the only type of tank available and all of them were in what was supposed to be the divisional heavy tank battalions. Each division had about 15 to 17 M-24 tanks at the time.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 75 mm
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow, the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft mounted atop turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 20.25 tons
    Length (not including gun): 16 feet 6 inches
    Width (overall): 9 feet 8 inches
    Height (to top of turret): 8 feet 1 inch
    Armor: 38 mm turret front; minimum of 10 mm elsewhere
    Ammunition carried: 48 rounds for 75 mm; 3,750 rounds for .30 caliber; 440 rounds for .50 caliber
    Engine: two Cadillac V-8s, 110 hp, gasoline
    Maximum speed: 35 mph
    Armor penetration: 70 mm at 500 yards
    Range: 110 miles
    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches
    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet
    Trench crossing: 8 feet
    M8 Armored Car

    This was the heaviest armored vehicle in the ROK Army at the beginning of the war. It had 27 of them. U.S. reconnaissance units also had a few of these cars at the time.
    Crew: 4 men
    Main gun: 37 mm
    Machine guns: one .30-caliber mounted coaxially; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 8.75 tons
    Length: 16 feet 5 inches
    Width (overall): 8 feet 4 inches
    Height (including machine gun): 7 feet 4½ inches
    Armor: 20-mm turret front; minimum of 3 mm elsewhere
    Ammunition carried: 80 rounds for 37-mm; approximately 3,000 for .30 caliber and 400 rounds for the .50 caliber
    Engine: Hercules 6 cylinder gasoline, 79 hp
    Maximum speed: 56 mph
    Armor penetration: 48 mm at 500 yards
    Range: 300–350 miles
    Fording depth: 2 feet 8 inches
    Vertical obstacle: 1 foot
     
    British

    United Kingdom forces fighting in Korea employed the Churchill Infantry tank and the heavy Centurion. The British also used the A27M Cromwell and A34 Comet tanks in Korea. Canadians brought M10 Achilles 17-pounder self-propelled guns but soon replaced them with U.S. Sherman tanks.

    Churchill VII Infantry Tank

    Variants included ones mounting a 95-mm howitzer, flamethrower, bridge layer, mortar and recovery vehicles. Most used in Korea were the Mark III.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 75 mm
    Machine guns: two light, one mounted forward in the hull, the other coaxially with the main gun
    Weight (combat loaded): 44.8 tons
    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 5 inches
    Width (overall): 9 feet
    Height (to top of turret): 11 feet 4 inches
    Armor: turret front, 152 mm; minimum 25 mm elsewhere
    Ammunition carried: 84 rounds for 75 mm; amount for machine guns unknown
    Engine: Bedford twin-six gasoline, 350 hp
    Maximum speed: 15.5 mph
    Armor penetration: 68 mm at 500 yards
    Range: 90 miles
    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches
    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 6 inches
    Trench crossing: 10 feet
    Centurion Medium (Cruiser) Mk-5.

    Variants include 105-mm gun, armored recovery, bridge layer and 165-mm demolition charge projector engineer. Its heavy weight (58 tons) and width (11 feet) made it too heavy and too wide for most bridges in South Korea.
    Crew: 4 men
    Main gun: 20 pounder (83.4-mm) gun
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one on commander’s cupola and one coaxially with main gun. In addition this model carried two six-barreled smoke dischargers.
    Weight (combat loaded): 58 tons
    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 9½ inches
    Width (overall): 11 feet 11½ inches
    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 7¾ inches
    Armor: 152 mm on turret front
    Ammunition carried: 64 rounds for 20 pounder; 4,250 rounds for machine guns
    Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor 4B, 12-cylinder gasoline, 650 hp
    Maximum speed: 21.5 mph
    Armor penetration: approximately 120 mm at 500 yards
    Range: 60 miles
    Fording depth: 4 feet 9 inches (could be prepared to ford 9 feet)
    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet
    Trench crossing: 11 feet
    Cromwell A27M Reconnaissance

    Originally produced near the end of World War II and outclassed by German armor from the start of its production, it was nonetheless very reliable.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 75 mm
    Machine guns: two light, one firing forward from the turret, the other in the bow
    Weight: 28 tons
    Armor: 76 mm
    Engine: Rolls Royce V-12 Meteor, 600 hp
    Maximum speed: 40 mph
    Comet A34 Heavy Cruiser

    The Comet entered service immediately after the Cromwell at the end of World War II.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 76.2 mm, but known as a 77 mm
    Machine guns: two light, one coaxial and the other in the bow
    Weight: 33 tons
    Armor: 101 mm
    Engine: 600 hp
    Maximum speed: 29 mph
    —Uzal W. Ent

    Sources

    Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu,(1961).

    Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War II,(1969).

    Foss, Christopher F. Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, (1971).

    Hunnicutt, Richard & P. Sherman, (1978).

    Macksey, Kenneth, and John H. Batchelor. Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle,(1976).

    Special thanks for ABC-Clio Inc., for permission to reprint from Encyclopedia of the Korean War, (2000)

    [summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

    It is a dictum of modern war that armor and infantry be employed as a team in battle. Infantrymen and tanks provide mutual support and protection. Tanks without accompanying infantry are vulnerable to enemy tank-killer weapons; infantry without accompanying tanks is vulnerable to small arms, machine guns and other direct-fire weapons. Infantrymen protect the tanks from the tank killers and the tanks engage enemy direct-fire weapons. Armor offensive tactics also envision armor employed in large formations, en masse, to overwhelm an enemy and make deep penetrations.

    But armor in Korea was rarely used in this fashion, especially after the war became one of position and stalemate. The mountainous terrain and narrow valleys of Korea, and, in the spring and summer, flooded rice paddies, made it difficult to employ more than a few tanks in one location. Attempts to employ them in larger concentrations invariably led to a number of the tanks becoming bogged down. The North Korean People’s Army (NKPA), particularly early in the war, failed to send infantry along with its tanks in the attack. As a result, once the United States and Republic of Korea Army (ROKA, South Koreans) obtained the 3.5-inch bazooka rocket launcher, communist tank losses soared. This, coupled with heavy armor losses from United Nations Command (UNC) air attacks, ended the threat of NKPA armor.

    Both UNC and communist tanks were often employed for long-range, pinpoint sniping fire against enemy positions. Worked to the tops of hills, these mobile “pill boxes” could be dug in, and they proved highly effective in that role.

    The NKPA and Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPVA, Chinese communist) during the Korean War employed the Russian-built T-34/85 tank, reputed to be one of the best tanks in World War II. They also utilized the BA-64 armored car. United Nations (U.N.) forces employed the U.S. M-24 light tank; the M4A3 (Sherman), with some variants; the M-26 (Pershing); the M-46 (Patton) tanks; and the British Churchill, Centurion, and some Cromwell tanks. Early in the war, South Korean and U.S. forces used a few M-8 (Greyhound) armored cars. The U.S. Army also used the M-29C Weasel cargo carrier, M-39 armored personnel carriers (APCs), and M-20 armored cars.

    Because there were a number of models and variants for each of the tanks discussed below, it is difficult to list specifications that are true of each major type of tank. What follows are typical specifications and characteristics and do not necessarily describe mutations resulting from model changes and other variants.

    North Korea & China



    T-34/85. This model evolved from the T-34/76, which was equipped with a 76-mm gun. The North Korean People’s Army was reported to have 150 T34/85 tanks at the beginning of the Korean War.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 85 mm

    Machine guns: two 7.62 mm (one in bow and one coaxially with the main gun)

    Weight (combat loaded): 35 short tons

    Length (not including gun): 19 feet 7 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 7 feet 11 inches

    Armor: turret front, 90 mm; hull front, 47 mm; hull rear, 60 mm

    Ammunition carried: 55 rounds for main gun; 2,745 rounds for 7.62.

    Engine: 12-cylinder diesel, 493 hp

    Maximum speed: 31–34 mph

    Armor penetration at 500 yards: 114 mm

    Range: 86 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 5 inches

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 2 inches
    United States



    M4A3 and M4A3E8 (Sherman)



    This tank was the mainstay of U.S. armor during World War II. There were many models and variants of the basic design, including dozers, 105-mm howitzers, rocket launchers, retrievers, flamethrowers, etc. M4A3E8 models carried a small metal box affixed to the right rear, containing an EE-8 sound-powered telephone, enabling an infantryman to communicate with the tank commander.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one of which was mounted in the bow and the other coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber antiaircraft gun, mounted on the top of the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 37 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 9 inches

    Armor: turret front, 2.5 inches, plus a gun shield of 3.5 inches (6 inches overall); hull front, tapered from 2.5 inches at the top to 4.5 inches at the bottom; hull sides and rear, 1.5 inches

    Ammunition carried: officially, 71 rounds for main gun; 6,150 rounds for .30 caliber; 600 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 26 mph

    Armor penetration: HVAP (High velocity armor piercing) 5.3 inches at 1000 yards; other ammunition, 3.5 inches at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 6 inches

    A tank retriever removes the damaged turret from a M4A3 Sherman tank
    M-26 (Pershing)



    The M-26 was developed near the end of World War II and is classified as a heavy tank.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow and one coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 46 tons

    Length (not including gun): 21 feet 2 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 1 inch

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum elsewhere, 13 mm

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90-mm gun; 5,000 rounds of .30 caliber; 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 25 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet 10 inches

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 11 inches


    An M26 Pershing tank grinds along a narrow mountain road
    M-46 (Patton)



    The M-46, an improved model of the M-26, was developed just after the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one mounted in the bow, the other coaxially with the main gun; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 48.5 tons

    Length (not including gun): 20 feet 10 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 3 inches

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum of 13 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90 mm; 5,000 of .30 caliber and 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Continental 810-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 31–37 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 80 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 6 inches
    M-24 (Chaffee)



    This was a light tank, employed by reconnaissance units. However, in the U.S. Army divisions in Japan before the war, it was the only type of tank available and all of them were in what was supposed to be the divisional heavy tank battalions. Each division had about 15 to 17 M-24 tanks at the time.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow, the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft mounted atop turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 20.25 tons

    Length (not including gun): 16 feet 6 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 8 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 8 feet 1 inch

    Armor: 38 mm turret front; minimum of 10 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 48 rounds for 75 mm; 3,750 rounds for .30 caliber; 440 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: two Cadillac V-8s, 110 hp, gasoline

    Maximum speed: 35 mph

    Armor penetration: 70 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 110 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet
    M8 Armored Car



    This was the heaviest armored vehicle in the ROK Army at the beginning of the war. It had 27 of them. U.S. reconnaissance units also had a few of these cars at the time.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 37 mm

    Machine guns: one .30-caliber mounted coaxially; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 8.75 tons

    Length: 16 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 8 feet 4 inches

    Height (including machine gun): 7 feet 4½ inches

    Armor: 20-mm turret front; minimum of 3 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 80 rounds for 37-mm; approximately 3,000 for .30 caliber and 400 rounds for the .50 caliber

    Engine: Hercules 6 cylinder gasoline, 79 hp

    Maximum speed: 56 mph

    Armor penetration: 48 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 300–350 miles

    Fording depth: 2 feet 8 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 1 foot
     
    British



    United Kingdom forces fighting in Korea employed the Churchill Infantry tank and the heavy Centurion. The British also used the A27M Cromwell and A34 Comet tanks in Korea. Canadians brought M10 Achilles 17-pounder self-propelled guns but soon replaced them with U.S. Sherman tanks.



    Churchill VII Infantry Tank



    Variants included ones mounting a 95-mm howitzer, flamethrower, bridge layer, mortar and recovery vehicles. Most used in Korea were the Mark III.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one mounted forward in the hull, the other coaxially with the main gun

    Weight (combat loaded): 44.8 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet

    Height (to top of turret): 11 feet 4 inches

    Armor: turret front, 152 mm; minimum 25 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 84 rounds for 75 mm; amount for machine guns unknown

    Engine: Bedford twin-six gasoline, 350 hp

    Maximum speed: 15.5 mph

    Armor penetration: 68 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 90 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 6 inches

    Trench crossing: 10 feet
    Centurion Medium (Cruiser) Mk-5.



    Variants include 105-mm gun, armored recovery, bridge layer and 165-mm demolition charge projector engineer. Its heavy weight (58 tons) and width (11 feet) made it too heavy and too wide for most bridges in South Korea.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 20 pounder (83.4-mm) gun

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one on commander’s cupola and one coaxially with main gun. In addition this model carried two six-barreled smoke dischargers.

    Weight (combat loaded): 58 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 9½ inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 11½ inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 7¾ inches

    Armor: 152 mm on turret front

    Ammunition carried: 64 rounds for 20 pounder; 4,250 rounds for machine guns

    Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor 4B, 12-cylinder gasoline, 650 hp

    Maximum speed: 21.5 mph

    Armor penetration: approximately 120 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 60 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 9 inches (could be prepared to ford 9 feet)

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 11 feet
    Cromwell A27M Reconnaissance



    Originally produced near the end of World War II and outclassed by German armor from the start of its production, it was nonetheless very reliable.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one firing forward from the turret, the other in the bow

    Weight: 28 tons

    Armor: 76 mm

    Engine: Rolls Royce V-12 Meteor, 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 40 mph
    Comet A34 Heavy Cruiser



    The Comet entered service immediately after the Cromwell at the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76.2 mm, but known as a 77 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one coaxial and the other in the bow

    Weight: 33 tons

    Armor: 101 mm

    Engine: 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 29 mph

    —Uzal W. Ent

    Sources

    Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu,(1961).

    Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War II,(1969).

    Foss, Christopher F. Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, (1971).

    Hunnicutt, Richard & P. Sherman, (1978).

    Macksey, Kenneth, and John H. Batchelor. Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle,(1976).

    Special thanks for ABC-Clio Inc., for permission to reprint from Encyclopedia of the Korean War, (2000)

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    It is a dictum of modern war that armor and infantry be employed as a team in battle. Infantrymen and tanks provide mutual support and protection. Tanks without accompanying infantry are vulnerable to enemy tank-killer weapons; infantry without accompanying tanks is vulnerable to small arms, machine guns and other direct-fire weapons. Infantrymen protect the tanks from the tank killers and the tanks engage enemy direct-fire weapons. Armor offensive tactics also envision armor employed in large formations, en masse, to overwhelm an enemy and make deep penetrations.

    But armor in Korea was rarely used in this fashion, especially after the war became one of position and stalemate. The mountainous terrain and narrow valleys of Korea, and, in the spring and summer, flooded rice paddies, made it difficult to employ more than a few tanks in one location. Attempts to employ them in larger concentrations invariably led to a number of the tanks becoming bogged down. The North Korean People’s Army (NKPA), particularly early in the war, failed to send infantry along with its tanks in the attack. As a result, once the United States and Republic of Korea Army (ROKA, South Koreans) obtained the 3.5-inch bazooka rocket launcher, communist tank losses soared. This, coupled with heavy armor losses from United Nations Command (UNC) air attacks, ended the threat of NKPA armor.

    Both UNC and communist tanks were often employed for long-range, pinpoint sniping fire against enemy positions. Worked to the tops of hills, these mobile “pill boxes” could be dug in, and they proved highly effective in that role.

    The NKPA and Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPVA, Chinese communist) during the Korean War employed the Russian-built T-34/85 tank, reputed to be one of the best tanks in World War II. They also utilized the BA-64 armored car. United Nations (U.N.) forces employed the U.S. M-24 light tank; the M4A3 (Sherman), with some variants; the M-26 (Pershing); the M-46 (Patton) tanks; and the British Churchill, Centurion, and some Cromwell tanks. Early in the war, South Korean and U.S. forces used a few M-8 (Greyhound) armored cars. The U.S. Army also used the M-29C Weasel cargo carrier, M-39 armored personnel carriers (APCs), and M-20 armored cars.

    Because there were a number of models and variants for each of the tanks discussed below, it is difficult to list specifications that are true of each major type of tank. What follows are typical specifications and characteristics and do not necessarily describe mutations resulting from model changes and other variants.

    North Korea & China

    T-34/85. This model evolved from the T-34/76, which was equipped with a 76-mm gun. The North Korean People’s Army was reported to have 150 T34/85 tanks at the beginning of the Korean War.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 85 mm
    Machine guns: two 7.62 mm (one in bow and one coaxially with the main gun)
    Weight (combat loaded): 35 short tons
    Length (not including gun): 19 feet 7 inches
    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches
    Height to top of turret: 7 feet 11 inches
    Armor: turret front, 90 mm; hull front, 47 mm; hull rear, 60 mm
    Ammunition carried: 55 rounds for main gun; 2,745 rounds for 7.62.
    Engine: 12-cylinder diesel, 493 hp
    Maximum speed: 31–34 mph
    Armor penetration at 500 yards: 114 mm
    Range: 86 miles
    Fording depth: 4 feet 4 inches
    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 5 inches
    Trench crossing: 8 feet 2 inches
    United States

    M4A3 and M4A3E8 (Sherman)

    This tank was the mainstay of U.S. armor during World War II. There were many models and variants of the basic design, including dozers, 105-mm howitzers, rocket launchers, retrievers, flamethrowers, etc. M4A3E8 models carried a small metal box affixed to the right rear, containing an EE-8 sound-powered telephone, enabling an infantryman to communicate with the tank commander.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 76 mm
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one of which was mounted in the bow and the other coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber antiaircraft gun, mounted on the top of the turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 37 tons
    Length (not including gun): 24 feet
    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches
    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 9 inches
    Armor: turret front, 2.5 inches, plus a gun shield of 3.5 inches (6 inches overall); hull front, tapered from 2.5 inches at the top to 4.5 inches at the bottom; hull sides and rear, 1.5 inches
    Ammunition carried: officially, 71 rounds for main gun; 6,150 rounds for .30 caliber; 600 rounds for .50 caliber
    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline
    Maximum speed: 26 mph
    Armor penetration: HVAP (High velocity armor piercing) 5.3 inches at 1000 yards; other ammunition, 3.5 inches at 1,000 yards
    Range: 100 miles
    Fording depth: 3 feet
    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet
    Trench crossing: 7 feet 6 inches
    A tank retriever removes the damaged turret from a M4A3 Sherman tank
    M-26 (Pershing)

    The M-26 was developed near the end of World War II and is classified as a heavy tank.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 90 mm
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow and one coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 46 tons
    Length (not including gun): 21 feet 2 inches
    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches
    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 1 inch
    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum elsewhere, 13 mm
    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90-mm gun; 5,000 rounds of .30 caliber; 550 rounds of .50 caliber
    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline
    Maximum speed: 25 mph
    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards
    Range: 100 miles
    Fording depth: 4 feet
    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet 10 inches
    Trench crossing: 7 feet 11 inches

    An M26 Pershing tank grinds along a narrow mountain road
    M-46 (Patton)

    The M-46, an improved model of the M-26, was developed just after the end of World War II.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 90 mm
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one mounted in the bow, the other coaxially with the main gun; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 48.5 tons
    Length (not including gun): 20 feet 10 inches
    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches
    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 3 inches
    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum of 13 mm elsewhere
    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90 mm; 5,000 of .30 caliber and 550 rounds of .50 caliber
    Engine: Continental 810-hp gasoline
    Maximum speed: 31–37 mph
    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards
    Range: 80 miles
    Fording depth: 4 feet
    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet
    Trench crossing: 8 feet 6 inches
    M-24 (Chaffee)

    This was a light tank, employed by reconnaissance units. However, in the U.S. Army divisions in Japan before the war, it was the only type of tank available and all of them were in what was supposed to be the divisional heavy tank battalions. Each division had about 15 to 17 M-24 tanks at the time.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 75 mm
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow, the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft mounted atop turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 20.25 tons
    Length (not including gun): 16 feet 6 inches
    Width (overall): 9 feet 8 inches
    Height (to top of turret): 8 feet 1 inch
    Armor: 38 mm turret front; minimum of 10 mm elsewhere
    Ammunition carried: 48 rounds for 75 mm; 3,750 rounds for .30 caliber; 440 rounds for .50 caliber
    Engine: two Cadillac V-8s, 110 hp, gasoline
    Maximum speed: 35 mph
    Armor penetration: 70 mm at 500 yards
    Range: 110 miles
    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches
    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet
    Trench crossing: 8 feet
    M8 Armored Car

    This was the heaviest armored vehicle in the ROK Army at the beginning of the war. It had 27 of them. U.S. reconnaissance units also had a few of these cars at the time.
    Crew: 4 men
    Main gun: 37 mm
    Machine guns: one .30-caliber mounted coaxially; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 8.75 tons
    Length: 16 feet 5 inches
    Width (overall): 8 feet 4 inches
    Height (including machine gun): 7 feet 4½ inches
    Armor: 20-mm turret front; minimum of 3 mm elsewhere
    Ammunition carried: 80 rounds for 37-mm; approximately 3,000 for .30 caliber and 400 rounds for the .50 caliber
    Engine: Hercules 6 cylinder gasoline, 79 hp
    Maximum speed: 56 mph
    Armor penetration: 48 mm at 500 yards
    Range: 300–350 miles
    Fording depth: 2 feet 8 inches
    Vertical obstacle: 1 foot
     
    British

    United Kingdom forces fighting in Korea employed the Churchill Infantry tank and the heavy Centurion. The British also used the A27M Cromwell and A34 Comet tanks in Korea. Canadians brought M10 Achilles 17-pounder self-propelled guns but soon replaced them with U.S. Sherman tanks.

    Churchill VII Infantry Tank

    Variants included ones mounting a 95-mm howitzer, flamethrower, bridge layer, mortar and recovery vehicles. Most used in Korea were the Mark III.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 75 mm
    Machine guns: two light, one mounted forward in the hull, the other coaxially with the main gun
    Weight (combat loaded): 44.8 tons
    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 5 inches
    Width (overall): 9 feet
    Height (to top of turret): 11 feet 4 inches
    Armor: turret front, 152 mm; minimum 25 mm elsewhere
    Ammunition carried: 84 rounds for 75 mm; amount for machine guns unknown
    Engine: Bedford twin-six gasoline, 350 hp
    Maximum speed: 15.5 mph
    Armor penetration: 68 mm at 500 yards
    Range: 90 miles
    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches
    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 6 inches
    Trench crossing: 10 feet
    Centurion Medium (Cruiser) Mk-5.

    Variants include 105-mm gun, armored recovery, bridge layer and 165-mm demolition charge projector engineer. Its heavy weight (58 tons) and width (11 feet) made it too heavy and too wide for most bridges in South Korea.
    Crew: 4 men
    Main gun: 20 pounder (83.4-mm) gun
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one on commander’s cupola and one coaxially with main gun. In addition this model carried two six-barreled smoke dischargers.
    Weight (combat loaded): 58 tons
    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 9½ inches
    Width (overall): 11 feet 11½ inches
    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 7¾ inches
    Armor: 152 mm on turret front
    Ammunition carried: 64 rounds for 20 pounder; 4,250 rounds for machine guns
    Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor 4B, 12-cylinder gasoline, 650 hp
    Maximum speed: 21.5 mph
    Armor penetration: approximately 120 mm at 500 yards
    Range: 60 miles
    Fording depth: 4 feet 9 inches (could be prepared to ford 9 feet)
    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet
    Trench crossing: 11 feet
    Cromwell A27M Reconnaissance

    Originally produced near the end of World War II and outclassed by German armor from the start of its production, it was nonetheless very reliable.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 75 mm
    Machine guns: two light, one firing forward from the turret, the other in the bow
    Weight: 28 tons
    Armor: 76 mm
    Engine: Rolls Royce V-12 Meteor, 600 hp
    Maximum speed: 40 mph
    Comet A34 Heavy Cruiser

    The Comet entered service immediately after the Cromwell at the end of World War II.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 76.2 mm, but known as a 77 mm
    Machine guns: two light, one coaxial and the other in the bow
    Weight: 33 tons
    Armor: 101 mm
    Engine: 600 hp
    Maximum speed: 29 mph
    —Uzal W. Ent

    Sources

    Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu,(1961).

    Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War II,(1969).

    Foss, Christopher F. Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, (1971).

    Hunnicutt, Richard & P. Sherman, (1978).

    Macksey, Kenneth, and John H. Batchelor. Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle,(1976).

    Special thanks for ABC-Clio Inc., for permission to reprint from Encyclopedia of the Korean War, (2000)

    [summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

    It is a dictum of modern war that armor and infantry be employed as a team in battle. Infantrymen and tanks provide mutual support and protection. Tanks without accompanying infantry are vulnerable to enemy tank-killer weapons; infantry without accompanying tanks is vulnerable to small arms, machine guns and other direct-fire weapons. Infantrymen protect the tanks from the tank killers and the tanks engage enemy direct-fire weapons. Armor offensive tactics also envision armor employed in large formations, en masse, to overwhelm an enemy and make deep penetrations.

    But armor in Korea was rarely used in this fashion, especially after the war became one of position and stalemate. The mountainous terrain and narrow valleys of Korea, and, in the spring and summer, flooded rice paddies, made it difficult to employ more than a few tanks in one location. Attempts to employ them in larger concentrations invariably led to a number of the tanks becoming bogged down. The North Korean People’s Army (NKPA), particularly early in the war, failed to send infantry along with its tanks in the attack. As a result, once the United States and Republic of Korea Army (ROKA, South Koreans) obtained the 3.5-inch bazooka rocket launcher, communist tank losses soared. This, coupled with heavy armor losses from United Nations Command (UNC) air attacks, ended the threat of NKPA armor.

    Both UNC and communist tanks were often employed for long-range, pinpoint sniping fire against enemy positions. Worked to the tops of hills, these mobile “pill boxes” could be dug in, and they proved highly effective in that role.

    The NKPA and Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPVA, Chinese communist) during the Korean War employed the Russian-built T-34/85 tank, reputed to be one of the best tanks in World War II. They also utilized the BA-64 armored car. United Nations (U.N.) forces employed the U.S. M-24 light tank; the M4A3 (Sherman), with some variants; the M-26 (Pershing); the M-46 (Patton) tanks; and the British Churchill, Centurion, and some Cromwell tanks. Early in the war, South Korean and U.S. forces used a few M-8 (Greyhound) armored cars. The U.S. Army also used the M-29C Weasel cargo carrier, M-39 armored personnel carriers (APCs), and M-20 armored cars.

    Because there were a number of models and variants for each of the tanks discussed below, it is difficult to list specifications that are true of each major type of tank. What follows are typical specifications and characteristics and do not necessarily describe mutations resulting from model changes and other variants.

    North Korea & China



    T-34/85. This model evolved from the T-34/76, which was equipped with a 76-mm gun. The North Korean People’s Army was reported to have 150 T34/85 tanks at the beginning of the Korean War.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 85 mm

    Machine guns: two 7.62 mm (one in bow and one coaxially with the main gun)

    Weight (combat loaded): 35 short tons

    Length (not including gun): 19 feet 7 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 7 feet 11 inches

    Armor: turret front, 90 mm; hull front, 47 mm; hull rear, 60 mm

    Ammunition carried: 55 rounds for main gun; 2,745 rounds for 7.62.

    Engine: 12-cylinder diesel, 493 hp

    Maximum speed: 31–34 mph

    Armor penetration at 500 yards: 114 mm

    Range: 86 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 5 inches

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 2 inches
    United States



    M4A3 and M4A3E8 (Sherman)



    This tank was the mainstay of U.S. armor during World War II. There were many models and variants of the basic design, including dozers, 105-mm howitzers, rocket launchers, retrievers, flamethrowers, etc. M4A3E8 models carried a small metal box affixed to the right rear, containing an EE-8 sound-powered telephone, enabling an infantryman to communicate with the tank commander.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one of which was mounted in the bow and the other coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber antiaircraft gun, mounted on the top of the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 37 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 9 inches

    Armor: turret front, 2.5 inches, plus a gun shield of 3.5 inches (6 inches overall); hull front, tapered from 2.5 inches at the top to 4.5 inches at the bottom; hull sides and rear, 1.5 inches

    Ammunition carried: officially, 71 rounds for main gun; 6,150 rounds for .30 caliber; 600 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 26 mph

    Armor penetration: HVAP (High velocity armor piercing) 5.3 inches at 1000 yards; other ammunition, 3.5 inches at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 6 inches

    A tank retriever removes the damaged turret from a M4A3 Sherman tank
    M-26 (Pershing)



    The M-26 was developed near the end of World War II and is classified as a heavy tank.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow and one coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 46 tons

    Length (not including gun): 21 feet 2 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 1 inch

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum elsewhere, 13 mm

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90-mm gun; 5,000 rounds of .30 caliber; 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 25 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet 10 inches

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 11 inches


    An M26 Pershing tank grinds along a narrow mountain road
    M-46 (Patton)



    The M-46, an improved model of the M-26, was developed just after the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one mounted in the bow, the other coaxially with the main gun; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 48.5 tons

    Length (not including gun): 20 feet 10 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 3 inches

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum of 13 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90 mm; 5,000 of .30 caliber and 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Continental 810-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 31–37 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 80 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 6 inches
    M-24 (Chaffee)



    This was a light tank, employed by reconnaissance units. However, in the U.S. Army divisions in Japan before the war, it was the only type of tank available and all of them were in what was supposed to be the divisional heavy tank battalions. Each division had about 15 to 17 M-24 tanks at the time.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow, the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft mounted atop turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 20.25 tons

    Length (not including gun): 16 feet 6 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 8 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 8 feet 1 inch

    Armor: 38 mm turret front; minimum of 10 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 48 rounds for 75 mm; 3,750 rounds for .30 caliber; 440 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: two Cadillac V-8s, 110 hp, gasoline

    Maximum speed: 35 mph

    Armor penetration: 70 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 110 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet
    M8 Armored Car



    This was the heaviest armored vehicle in the ROK Army at the beginning of the war. It had 27 of them. U.S. reconnaissance units also had a few of these cars at the time.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 37 mm

    Machine guns: one .30-caliber mounted coaxially; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 8.75 tons

    Length: 16 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 8 feet 4 inches

    Height (including machine gun): 7 feet 4½ inches

    Armor: 20-mm turret front; minimum of 3 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 80 rounds for 37-mm; approximately 3,000 for .30 caliber and 400 rounds for the .50 caliber

    Engine: Hercules 6 cylinder gasoline, 79 hp

    Maximum speed: 56 mph

    Armor penetration: 48 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 300–350 miles

    Fording depth: 2 feet 8 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 1 foot
     
    British



    United Kingdom forces fighting in Korea employed the Churchill Infantry tank and the heavy Centurion. The British also used the A27M Cromwell and A34 Comet tanks in Korea. Canadians brought M10 Achilles 17-pounder self-propelled guns but soon replaced them with U.S. Sherman tanks.



    Churchill VII Infantry Tank



    Variants included ones mounting a 95-mm howitzer, flamethrower, bridge layer, mortar and recovery vehicles. Most used in Korea were the Mark III.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one mounted forward in the hull, the other coaxially with the main gun

    Weight (combat loaded): 44.8 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet

    Height (to top of turret): 11 feet 4 inches

    Armor: turret front, 152 mm; minimum 25 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 84 rounds for 75 mm; amount for machine guns unknown

    Engine: Bedford twin-six gasoline, 350 hp

    Maximum speed: 15.5 mph

    Armor penetration: 68 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 90 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 6 inches

    Trench crossing: 10 feet
    Centurion Medium (Cruiser) Mk-5.



    Variants include 105-mm gun, armored recovery, bridge layer and 165-mm demolition charge projector engineer. Its heavy weight (58 tons) and width (11 feet) made it too heavy and too wide for most bridges in South Korea.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 20 pounder (83.4-mm) gun

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one on commander’s cupola and one coaxially with main gun. In addition this model carried two six-barreled smoke dischargers.

    Weight (combat loaded): 58 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 9½ inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 11½ inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 7¾ inches

    Armor: 152 mm on turret front

    Ammunition carried: 64 rounds for 20 pounder; 4,250 rounds for machine guns

    Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor 4B, 12-cylinder gasoline, 650 hp

    Maximum speed: 21.5 mph

    Armor penetration: approximately 120 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 60 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 9 inches (could be prepared to ford 9 feet)

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 11 feet
    Cromwell A27M Reconnaissance



    Originally produced near the end of World War II and outclassed by German armor from the start of its production, it was nonetheless very reliable.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one firing forward from the turret, the other in the bow

    Weight: 28 tons

    Armor: 76 mm

    Engine: Rolls Royce V-12 Meteor, 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 40 mph
    Comet A34 Heavy Cruiser



    The Comet entered service immediately after the Cromwell at the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76.2 mm, but known as a 77 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one coaxial and the other in the bow

    Weight: 33 tons

    Armor: 101 mm

    Engine: 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 29 mph

    —Uzal W. Ent

    Sources

    Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu,(1961).

    Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War II,(1969).

    Foss, Christopher F. Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, (1971).

    Hunnicutt, Richard & P. Sherman, (1978).

    Macksey, Kenneth, and John H. Batchelor. Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle,(1976).

    Special thanks for ABC-Clio Inc., for permission to reprint from Encyclopedia of the Korean War, (2000)

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    It is a dictum of modern war that armor and infantry be employed as a team in battle. Infantrymen and tanks provide mutual support and protection. Tanks without accompanying infantry are vulnerable to enemy tank-killer weapons; infantry without accompanying tanks is vulnerable to small arms, machine guns and other direct-fire weapons. Infantrymen protect the tanks from the tank killers and the tanks engage enemy direct-fire weapons. Armor offensive tactics also envision armor employed in large formations, en masse, to overwhelm an enemy and make deep penetrations.

    But armor in Korea was rarely used in this fashion, especially after the war became one of position and stalemate. The mountainous terrain and narrow valleys of Korea, and, in the spring and summer, flooded rice paddies, made it difficult to employ more than a few tanks in one location. Attempts to employ them in larger concentrations invariably led to a number of the tanks becoming bogged down. The North Korean People’s Army (NKPA), particularly early in the war, failed to send infantry along with its tanks in the attack. As a result, once the United States and Republic of Korea Army (ROKA, South Koreans) obtained the 3.5-inch bazooka rocket launcher, communist tank losses soared. This, coupled with heavy armor losses from United Nations Command (UNC) air attacks, ended the threat of NKPA armor.

    Both UNC and communist tanks were often employed for long-range, pinpoint sniping fire against enemy positions. Worked to the tops of hills, these mobile “pill boxes” could be dug in, and they proved highly effective in that role.

    The NKPA and Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPVA, Chinese communist) during the Korean War employed the Russian-built T-34/85 tank, reputed to be one of the best tanks in World War II. They also utilized the BA-64 armored car. United Nations (U.N.) forces employed the U.S. M-24 light tank; the M4A3 (Sherman), with some variants; the M-26 (Pershing); the M-46 (Patton) tanks; and the British Churchill, Centurion, and some Cromwell tanks. Early in the war, South Korean and U.S. forces used a few M-8 (Greyhound) armored cars. The U.S. Army also used the M-29C Weasel cargo carrier, M-39 armored personnel carriers (APCs), and M-20 armored cars.

    Because there were a number of models and variants for each of the tanks discussed below, it is difficult to list specifications that are true of each major type of tank. What follows are typical specifications and characteristics and do not necessarily describe mutations resulting from model changes and other variants.

    North Korea & China

    T-34/85. This model evolved from the T-34/76, which was equipped with a 76-mm gun. The North Korean People’s Army was reported to have 150 T34/85 tanks at the beginning of the Korean War.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 85 mm
    Machine guns: two 7.62 mm (one in bow and one coaxially with the main gun)
    Weight (combat loaded): 35 short tons
    Length (not including gun): 19 feet 7 inches
    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches
    Height to top of turret: 7 feet 11 inches
    Armor: turret front, 90 mm; hull front, 47 mm; hull rear, 60 mm
    Ammunition carried: 55 rounds for main gun; 2,745 rounds for 7.62.
    Engine: 12-cylinder diesel, 493 hp
    Maximum speed: 31–34 mph
    Armor penetration at 500 yards: 114 mm
    Range: 86 miles
    Fording depth: 4 feet 4 inches
    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 5 inches
    Trench crossing: 8 feet 2 inches
    United States

    M4A3 and M4A3E8 (Sherman)

    This tank was the mainstay of U.S. armor during World War II. There were many models and variants of the basic design, including dozers, 105-mm howitzers, rocket launchers, retrievers, flamethrowers, etc. M4A3E8 models carried a small metal box affixed to the right rear, containing an EE-8 sound-powered telephone, enabling an infantryman to communicate with the tank commander.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 76 mm
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one of which was mounted in the bow and the other coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber antiaircraft gun, mounted on the top of the turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 37 tons
    Length (not including gun): 24 feet
    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches
    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 9 inches
    Armor: turret front, 2.5 inches, plus a gun shield of 3.5 inches (6 inches overall); hull front, tapered from 2.5 inches at the top to 4.5 inches at the bottom; hull sides and rear, 1.5 inches
    Ammunition carried: officially, 71 rounds for main gun; 6,150 rounds for .30 caliber; 600 rounds for .50 caliber
    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline
    Maximum speed: 26 mph
    Armor penetration: HVAP (High velocity armor piercing) 5.3 inches at 1000 yards; other ammunition, 3.5 inches at 1,000 yards
    Range: 100 miles
    Fording depth: 3 feet
    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet
    Trench crossing: 7 feet 6 inches
    A tank retriever removes the damaged turret from a M4A3 Sherman tank
    M-26 (Pershing)

    The M-26 was developed near the end of World War II and is classified as a heavy tank.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 90 mm
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow and one coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 46 tons
    Length (not including gun): 21 feet 2 inches
    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches
    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 1 inch
    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum elsewhere, 13 mm
    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90-mm gun; 5,000 rounds of .30 caliber; 550 rounds of .50 caliber
    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline
    Maximum speed: 25 mph
    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards
    Range: 100 miles
    Fording depth: 4 feet
    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet 10 inches
    Trench crossing: 7 feet 11 inches

    An M26 Pershing tank grinds along a narrow mountain road
    M-46 (Patton)

    The M-46, an improved model of the M-26, was developed just after the end of World War II.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 90 mm
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one mounted in the bow, the other coaxially with the main gun; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 48.5 tons
    Length (not including gun): 20 feet 10 inches
    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches
    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 3 inches
    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum of 13 mm elsewhere
    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90 mm; 5,000 of .30 caliber and 550 rounds of .50 caliber
    Engine: Continental 810-hp gasoline
    Maximum speed: 31–37 mph
    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards
    Range: 80 miles
    Fording depth: 4 feet
    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet
    Trench crossing: 8 feet 6 inches
    M-24 (Chaffee)

    This was a light tank, employed by reconnaissance units. However, in the U.S. Army divisions in Japan before the war, it was the only type of tank available and all of them were in what was supposed to be the divisional heavy tank battalions. Each division had about 15 to 17 M-24 tanks at the time.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 75 mm
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow, the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft mounted atop turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 20.25 tons
    Length (not including gun): 16 feet 6 inches
    Width (overall): 9 feet 8 inches
    Height (to top of turret): 8 feet 1 inch
    Armor: 38 mm turret front; minimum of 10 mm elsewhere
    Ammunition carried: 48 rounds for 75 mm; 3,750 rounds for .30 caliber; 440 rounds for .50 caliber
    Engine: two Cadillac V-8s, 110 hp, gasoline
    Maximum speed: 35 mph
    Armor penetration: 70 mm at 500 yards
    Range: 110 miles
    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches
    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet
    Trench crossing: 8 feet
    M8 Armored Car

    This was the heaviest armored vehicle in the ROK Army at the beginning of the war. It had 27 of them. U.S. reconnaissance units also had a few of these cars at the time.
    Crew: 4 men
    Main gun: 37 mm
    Machine guns: one .30-caliber mounted coaxially; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret
    Weight (combat loaded): 8.75 tons
    Length: 16 feet 5 inches
    Width (overall): 8 feet 4 inches
    Height (including machine gun): 7 feet 4½ inches
    Armor: 20-mm turret front; minimum of 3 mm elsewhere
    Ammunition carried: 80 rounds for 37-mm; approximately 3,000 for .30 caliber and 400 rounds for the .50 caliber
    Engine: Hercules 6 cylinder gasoline, 79 hp
    Maximum speed: 56 mph
    Armor penetration: 48 mm at 500 yards
    Range: 300–350 miles
    Fording depth: 2 feet 8 inches
    Vertical obstacle: 1 foot
     
    British

    United Kingdom forces fighting in Korea employed the Churchill Infantry tank and the heavy Centurion. The British also used the A27M Cromwell and A34 Comet tanks in Korea. Canadians brought M10 Achilles 17-pounder self-propelled guns but soon replaced them with U.S. Sherman tanks.

    Churchill VII Infantry Tank

    Variants included ones mounting a 95-mm howitzer, flamethrower, bridge layer, mortar and recovery vehicles. Most used in Korea were the Mark III.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 75 mm
    Machine guns: two light, one mounted forward in the hull, the other coaxially with the main gun
    Weight (combat loaded): 44.8 tons
    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 5 inches
    Width (overall): 9 feet
    Height (to top of turret): 11 feet 4 inches
    Armor: turret front, 152 mm; minimum 25 mm elsewhere
    Ammunition carried: 84 rounds for 75 mm; amount for machine guns unknown
    Engine: Bedford twin-six gasoline, 350 hp
    Maximum speed: 15.5 mph
    Armor penetration: 68 mm at 500 yards
    Range: 90 miles
    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches
    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 6 inches
    Trench crossing: 10 feet
    Centurion Medium (Cruiser) Mk-5.

    Variants include 105-mm gun, armored recovery, bridge layer and 165-mm demolition charge projector engineer. Its heavy weight (58 tons) and width (11 feet) made it too heavy and too wide for most bridges in South Korea.
    Crew: 4 men
    Main gun: 20 pounder (83.4-mm) gun
    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one on commander’s cupola and one coaxially with main gun. In addition this model carried two six-barreled smoke dischargers.
    Weight (combat loaded): 58 tons
    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 9½ inches
    Width (overall): 11 feet 11½ inches
    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 7¾ inches
    Armor: 152 mm on turret front
    Ammunition carried: 64 rounds for 20 pounder; 4,250 rounds for machine guns
    Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor 4B, 12-cylinder gasoline, 650 hp
    Maximum speed: 21.5 mph
    Armor penetration: approximately 120 mm at 500 yards
    Range: 60 miles
    Fording depth: 4 feet 9 inches (could be prepared to ford 9 feet)
    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet
    Trench crossing: 11 feet
    Cromwell A27M Reconnaissance

    Originally produced near the end of World War II and outclassed by German armor from the start of its production, it was nonetheless very reliable.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 75 mm
    Machine guns: two light, one firing forward from the turret, the other in the bow
    Weight: 28 tons
    Armor: 76 mm
    Engine: Rolls Royce V-12 Meteor, 600 hp
    Maximum speed: 40 mph
    Comet A34 Heavy Cruiser

    The Comet entered service immediately after the Cromwell at the end of World War II.
    Crew: 5 men
    Main gun: 76.2 mm, but known as a 77 mm
    Machine guns: two light, one coaxial and the other in the bow
    Weight: 33 tons
    Armor: 101 mm
    Engine: 600 hp
    Maximum speed: 29 mph
    —Uzal W. Ent

    Sources

    Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu,(1961).

    Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War II,(1969).

    Foss, Christopher F. Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, (1971).

    Hunnicutt, Richard & P. Sherman, (1978).

    Macksey, Kenneth, and John H. Batchelor. Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle,(1976).

    Special thanks for ABC-Clio Inc., for permission to reprint from Encyclopedia of the Korean War, (2000)

    [summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

    It is a dictum of modern war that armor and infantry be employed as a team in battle. Infantrymen and tanks provide mutual support and protection. Tanks without accompanying infantry are vulnerable to enemy tank-killer weapons; infantry without accompanying tanks is vulnerable to small arms, machine guns and other direct-fire weapons. Infantrymen protect the tanks from the tank killers and the tanks engage enemy direct-fire weapons. Armor offensive tactics also envision armor employed in large formations, en masse, to overwhelm an enemy and make deep penetrations.

    But armor in Korea was rarely used in this fashion, especially after the war became one of position and stalemate. The mountainous terrain and narrow valleys of Korea, and, in the spring and summer, flooded rice paddies, made it difficult to employ more than a few tanks in one location. Attempts to employ them in larger concentrations invariably led to a number of the tanks becoming bogged down. The North Korean People’s Army (NKPA), particularly early in the war, failed to send infantry along with its tanks in the attack. As a result, once the United States and Republic of Korea Army (ROKA, South Koreans) obtained the 3.5-inch bazooka rocket launcher, communist tank losses soared. This, coupled with heavy armor losses from United Nations Command (UNC) air attacks, ended the threat of NKPA armor.

    Both UNC and communist tanks were often employed for long-range, pinpoint sniping fire against enemy positions. Worked to the tops of hills, these mobile “pill boxes” could be dug in, and they proved highly effective in that role.

    The NKPA and Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPVA, Chinese communist) during the Korean War employed the Russian-built T-34/85 tank, reputed to be one of the best tanks in World War II. They also utilized the BA-64 armored car. United Nations (U.N.) forces employed the U.S. M-24 light tank; the M4A3 (Sherman), with some variants; the M-26 (Pershing); the M-46 (Patton) tanks; and the British Churchill, Centurion, and some Cromwell tanks. Early in the war, South Korean and U.S. forces used a few M-8 (Greyhound) armored cars. The U.S. Army also used the M-29C Weasel cargo carrier, M-39 armored personnel carriers (APCs), and M-20 armored cars.

    Because there were a number of models and variants for each of the tanks discussed below, it is difficult to list specifications that are true of each major type of tank. What follows are typical specifications and characteristics and do not necessarily describe mutations resulting from model changes and other variants.

    North Korea & China



    T-34/85. This model evolved from the T-34/76, which was equipped with a 76-mm gun. The North Korean People’s Army was reported to have 150 T34/85 tanks at the beginning of the Korean War.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 85 mm

    Machine guns: two 7.62 mm (one in bow and one coaxially with the main gun)

    Weight (combat loaded): 35 short tons

    Length (not including gun): 19 feet 7 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 7 feet 11 inches

    Armor: turret front, 90 mm; hull front, 47 mm; hull rear, 60 mm

    Ammunition carried: 55 rounds for main gun; 2,745 rounds for 7.62.

    Engine: 12-cylinder diesel, 493 hp

    Maximum speed: 31–34 mph

    Armor penetration at 500 yards: 114 mm

    Range: 86 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 5 inches

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 2 inches
    United States



    M4A3 and M4A3E8 (Sherman)



    This tank was the mainstay of U.S. armor during World War II. There were many models and variants of the basic design, including dozers, 105-mm howitzers, rocket launchers, retrievers, flamethrowers, etc. M4A3E8 models carried a small metal box affixed to the right rear, containing an EE-8 sound-powered telephone, enabling an infantryman to communicate with the tank commander.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one of which was mounted in the bow and the other coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber antiaircraft gun, mounted on the top of the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 37 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 9 inches

    Armor: turret front, 2.5 inches, plus a gun shield of 3.5 inches (6 inches overall); hull front, tapered from 2.5 inches at the top to 4.5 inches at the bottom; hull sides and rear, 1.5 inches

    Ammunition carried: officially, 71 rounds for main gun; 6,150 rounds for .30 caliber; 600 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 26 mph

    Armor penetration: HVAP (High velocity armor piercing) 5.3 inches at 1000 yards; other ammunition, 3.5 inches at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 6 inches

    A tank retriever removes the damaged turret from a M4A3 Sherman tank
    M-26 (Pershing)



    The M-26 was developed near the end of World War II and is classified as a heavy tank.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow and one coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 46 tons

    Length (not including gun): 21 feet 2 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 1 inch

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum elsewhere, 13 mm

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90-mm gun; 5,000 rounds of .30 caliber; 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 25 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet 10 inches

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 11 inches


    An M26 Pershing tank grinds along a narrow mountain road
    M-46 (Patton)



    The M-46, an improved model of the M-26, was developed just after the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one mounted in the bow, the other coaxially with the main gun; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 48.5 tons

    Length (not including gun): 20 feet 10 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 3 inches

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum of 13 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90 mm; 5,000 of .30 caliber and 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Continental 810-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 31–37 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 80 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 6 inches
    M-24 (Chaffee)



    This was a light tank, employed by reconnaissance units. However, in the U.S. Army divisions in Japan before the war, it was the only type of tank available and all of them were in what was supposed to be the divisional heavy tank battalions. Each division had about 15 to 17 M-24 tanks at the time.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow, the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft mounted atop turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 20.25 tons

    Length (not including gun): 16 feet 6 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 8 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 8 feet 1 inch

    Armor: 38 mm turret front; minimum of 10 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 48 rounds for 75 mm; 3,750 rounds for .30 caliber; 440 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: two Cadillac V-8s, 110 hp, gasoline

    Maximum speed: 35 mph

    Armor penetration: 70 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 110 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet
    M8 Armored Car



    This was the heaviest armored vehicle in the ROK Army at the beginning of the war. It had 27 of them. U.S. reconnaissance units also had a few of these cars at the time.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 37 mm

    Machine guns: one .30-caliber mounted coaxially; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 8.75 tons

    Length: 16 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 8 feet 4 inches

    Height (including machine gun): 7 feet 4½ inches

    Armor: 20-mm turret front; minimum of 3 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 80 rounds for 37-mm; approximately 3,000 for .30 caliber and 400 rounds for the .50 caliber

    Engine: Hercules 6 cylinder gasoline, 79 hp

    Maximum speed: 56 mph

    Armor penetration: 48 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 300–350 miles

    Fording depth: 2 feet 8 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 1 foot
     
    British



    United Kingdom forces fighting in Korea employed the Churchill Infantry tank and the heavy Centurion. The British also used the A27M Cromwell and A34 Comet tanks in Korea. Canadians brought M10 Achilles 17-pounder self-propelled guns but soon replaced them with U.S. Sherman tanks.



    Churchill VII Infantry Tank



    Variants included ones mounting a 95-mm howitzer, flamethrower, bridge layer, mortar and recovery vehicles. Most used in Korea were the Mark III.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one mounted forward in the hull, the other coaxially with the main gun

    Weight (combat loaded): 44.8 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet

    Height (to top of turret): 11 feet 4 inches

    Armor: turret front, 152 mm; minimum 25 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 84 rounds for 75 mm; amount for machine guns unknown

    Engine: Bedford twin-six gasoline, 350 hp

    Maximum speed: 15.5 mph

    Armor penetration: 68 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 90 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 6 inches

    Trench crossing: 10 feet
    Centurion Medium (Cruiser) Mk-5.



    Variants include 105-mm gun, armored recovery, bridge layer and 165-mm demolition charge projector engineer. Its heavy weight (58 tons) and width (11 feet) made it too heavy and too wide for most bridges in South Korea.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 20 pounder (83.4-mm) gun

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one on commander’s cupola and one coaxially with main gun. In addition this model carried two six-barreled smoke dischargers.

    Weight (combat loaded): 58 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 9½ inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 11½ inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 7¾ inches

    Armor: 152 mm on turret front

    Ammunition carried: 64 rounds for 20 pounder; 4,250 rounds for machine guns

    Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor 4B, 12-cylinder gasoline, 650 hp

    Maximum speed: 21.5 mph

    Armor penetration: approximately 120 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 60 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 9 inches (could be prepared to ford 9 feet)

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 11 feet
    Cromwell A27M Reconnaissance



    Originally produced near the end of World War II and outclassed by German armor from the start of its production, it was nonetheless very reliable.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one firing forward from the turret, the other in the bow

    Weight: 28 tons

    Armor: 76 mm

    Engine: Rolls Royce V-12 Meteor, 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 40 mph
    Comet A34 Heavy Cruiser



    The Comet entered service immediately after the Cromwell at the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76.2 mm, but known as a 77 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one coaxial and the other in the bow

    Weight: 33 tons

    Armor: 101 mm

    Engine: 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 29 mph

    —Uzal W. Ent

    Sources

    Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu,(1961).

    Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War II,(1969).

    Foss, Christopher F. Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, (1971).

    Hunnicutt, Richard & P. Sherman, (1978).

    Macksey, Kenneth, and John H. Batchelor. Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle,(1976).

    Special thanks for ABC-Clio Inc., for permission to reprint from Encyclopedia of the Korean War, (2000)

    [safe_summary] => ) ) [#formatter] => text_default [0] => Array ( [#markup] =>

    It is a dictum of modern war that armor and infantry be employed as a team in battle. Infantrymen and tanks provide mutual support and protection. Tanks without accompanying infantry are vulnerable to enemy tank-killer weapons; infantry without accompanying tanks is vulnerable to small arms, machine guns and other direct-fire weapons. Infantrymen protect the tanks from the tank killers and the tanks engage enemy direct-fire weapons. Armor offensive tactics also envision armor employed in large formations, en masse, to overwhelm an enemy and make deep penetrations.

    But armor in Korea was rarely used in this fashion, especially after the war became one of position and stalemate. The mountainous terrain and narrow valleys of Korea, and, in the spring and summer, flooded rice paddies, made it difficult to employ more than a few tanks in one location. Attempts to employ them in larger concentrations invariably led to a number of the tanks becoming bogged down. The North Korean People’s Army (NKPA), particularly early in the war, failed to send infantry along with its tanks in the attack. As a result, once the United States and Republic of Korea Army (ROKA, South Koreans) obtained the 3.5-inch bazooka rocket launcher, communist tank losses soared. This, coupled with heavy armor losses from United Nations Command (UNC) air attacks, ended the threat of NKPA armor.

    Both UNC and communist tanks were often employed for long-range, pinpoint sniping fire against enemy positions. Worked to the tops of hills, these mobile “pill boxes” could be dug in, and they proved highly effective in that role.

    The NKPA and Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPVA, Chinese communist) during the Korean War employed the Russian-built T-34/85 tank, reputed to be one of the best tanks in World War II. They also utilized the BA-64 armored car. United Nations (U.N.) forces employed the U.S. M-24 light tank; the M4A3 (Sherman), with some variants; the M-26 (Pershing); the M-46 (Patton) tanks; and the British Churchill, Centurion, and some Cromwell tanks. Early in the war, South Korean and U.S. forces used a few M-8 (Greyhound) armored cars. The U.S. Army also used the M-29C Weasel cargo carrier, M-39 armored personnel carriers (APCs), and M-20 armored cars.

    Because there were a number of models and variants for each of the tanks discussed below, it is difficult to list specifications that are true of each major type of tank. What follows are typical specifications and characteristics and do not necessarily describe mutations resulting from model changes and other variants.

    North Korea & China



    T-34/85. This model evolved from the T-34/76, which was equipped with a 76-mm gun. The North Korean People’s Army was reported to have 150 T34/85 tanks at the beginning of the Korean War.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 85 mm

    Machine guns: two 7.62 mm (one in bow and one coaxially with the main gun)

    Weight (combat loaded): 35 short tons

    Length (not including gun): 19 feet 7 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 7 feet 11 inches

    Armor: turret front, 90 mm; hull front, 47 mm; hull rear, 60 mm

    Ammunition carried: 55 rounds for main gun; 2,745 rounds for 7.62.

    Engine: 12-cylinder diesel, 493 hp

    Maximum speed: 31–34 mph

    Armor penetration at 500 yards: 114 mm

    Range: 86 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 5 inches

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 2 inches
    United States



    M4A3 and M4A3E8 (Sherman)



    This tank was the mainstay of U.S. armor during World War II. There were many models and variants of the basic design, including dozers, 105-mm howitzers, rocket launchers, retrievers, flamethrowers, etc. M4A3E8 models carried a small metal box affixed to the right rear, containing an EE-8 sound-powered telephone, enabling an infantryman to communicate with the tank commander.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one of which was mounted in the bow and the other coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber antiaircraft gun, mounted on the top of the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 37 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 9 inches

    Armor: turret front, 2.5 inches, plus a gun shield of 3.5 inches (6 inches overall); hull front, tapered from 2.5 inches at the top to 4.5 inches at the bottom; hull sides and rear, 1.5 inches

    Ammunition carried: officially, 71 rounds for main gun; 6,150 rounds for .30 caliber; 600 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 26 mph

    Armor penetration: HVAP (High velocity armor piercing) 5.3 inches at 1000 yards; other ammunition, 3.5 inches at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 6 inches

    A tank retriever removes the damaged turret from a M4A3 Sherman tank
    M-26 (Pershing)



    The M-26 was developed near the end of World War II and is classified as a heavy tank.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow and one coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 46 tons

    Length (not including gun): 21 feet 2 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 1 inch

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum elsewhere, 13 mm

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90-mm gun; 5,000 rounds of .30 caliber; 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 25 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet 10 inches

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 11 inches


    An M26 Pershing tank grinds along a narrow mountain road
    M-46 (Patton)



    The M-46, an improved model of the M-26, was developed just after the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one mounted in the bow, the other coaxially with the main gun; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 48.5 tons

    Length (not including gun): 20 feet 10 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 3 inches

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum of 13 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90 mm; 5,000 of .30 caliber and 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Continental 810-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 31–37 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 80 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 6 inches
    M-24 (Chaffee)



    This was a light tank, employed by reconnaissance units. However, in the U.S. Army divisions in Japan before the war, it was the only type of tank available and all of them were in what was supposed to be the divisional heavy tank battalions. Each division had about 15 to 17 M-24 tanks at the time.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow, the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft mounted atop turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 20.25 tons

    Length (not including gun): 16 feet 6 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 8 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 8 feet 1 inch

    Armor: 38 mm turret front; minimum of 10 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 48 rounds for 75 mm; 3,750 rounds for .30 caliber; 440 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: two Cadillac V-8s, 110 hp, gasoline

    Maximum speed: 35 mph

    Armor penetration: 70 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 110 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet
    M8 Armored Car



    This was the heaviest armored vehicle in the ROK Army at the beginning of the war. It had 27 of them. U.S. reconnaissance units also had a few of these cars at the time.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 37 mm

    Machine guns: one .30-caliber mounted coaxially; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 8.75 tons

    Length: 16 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 8 feet 4 inches

    Height (including machine gun): 7 feet 4½ inches

    Armor: 20-mm turret front; minimum of 3 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 80 rounds for 37-mm; approximately 3,000 for .30 caliber and 400 rounds for the .50 caliber

    Engine: Hercules 6 cylinder gasoline, 79 hp

    Maximum speed: 56 mph

    Armor penetration: 48 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 300–350 miles

    Fording depth: 2 feet 8 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 1 foot
     
    British



    United Kingdom forces fighting in Korea employed the Churchill Infantry tank and the heavy Centurion. The British also used the A27M Cromwell and A34 Comet tanks in Korea. Canadians brought M10 Achilles 17-pounder self-propelled guns but soon replaced them with U.S. Sherman tanks.



    Churchill VII Infantry Tank



    Variants included ones mounting a 95-mm howitzer, flamethrower, bridge layer, mortar and recovery vehicles. Most used in Korea were the Mark III.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one mounted forward in the hull, the other coaxially with the main gun

    Weight (combat loaded): 44.8 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet

    Height (to top of turret): 11 feet 4 inches

    Armor: turret front, 152 mm; minimum 25 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 84 rounds for 75 mm; amount for machine guns unknown

    Engine: Bedford twin-six gasoline, 350 hp

    Maximum speed: 15.5 mph

    Armor penetration: 68 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 90 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 6 inches

    Trench crossing: 10 feet
    Centurion Medium (Cruiser) Mk-5.



    Variants include 105-mm gun, armored recovery, bridge layer and 165-mm demolition charge projector engineer. Its heavy weight (58 tons) and width (11 feet) made it too heavy and too wide for most bridges in South Korea.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 20 pounder (83.4-mm) gun

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one on commander’s cupola and one coaxially with main gun. In addition this model carried two six-barreled smoke dischargers.

    Weight (combat loaded): 58 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 9½ inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 11½ inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 7¾ inches

    Armor: 152 mm on turret front

    Ammunition carried: 64 rounds for 20 pounder; 4,250 rounds for machine guns

    Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor 4B, 12-cylinder gasoline, 650 hp

    Maximum speed: 21.5 mph

    Armor penetration: approximately 120 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 60 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 9 inches (could be prepared to ford 9 feet)

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 11 feet
    Cromwell A27M Reconnaissance



    Originally produced near the end of World War II and outclassed by German armor from the start of its production, it was nonetheless very reliable.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one firing forward from the turret, the other in the bow

    Weight: 28 tons

    Armor: 76 mm

    Engine: Rolls Royce V-12 Meteor, 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 40 mph
    Comet A34 Heavy Cruiser



    The Comet entered service immediately after the Cromwell at the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76.2 mm, but known as a 77 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one coaxial and the other in the bow

    Weight: 33 tons

    Armor: 101 mm

    Engine: 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 29 mph

    —Uzal W. Ent

    Sources

    Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu,(1961).

    Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War II,(1969).

    Foss, Christopher F. Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, (1971).

    Hunnicutt, Richard & P. Sherman, (1978).

    Macksey, Kenneth, and John H. Batchelor. Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle,(1976).

    Special thanks for ABC-Clio Inc., for permission to reprint from Encyclopedia of the Korean War, (2000)

    ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#children] =>

    It is a dictum of modern war that armor and infantry be employed as a team in battle. Infantrymen and tanks provide mutual support and protection. Tanks without accompanying infantry are vulnerable to enemy tank-killer weapons; infantry without accompanying tanks is vulnerable to small arms, machine guns and other direct-fire weapons. Infantrymen protect the tanks from the tank killers and the tanks engage enemy direct-fire weapons. Armor offensive tactics also envision armor employed in large formations, en masse, to overwhelm an enemy and make deep penetrations.

    But armor in Korea was rarely used in this fashion, especially after the war became one of position and stalemate. The mountainous terrain and narrow valleys of Korea, and, in the spring and summer, flooded rice paddies, made it difficult to employ more than a few tanks in one location. Attempts to employ them in larger concentrations invariably led to a number of the tanks becoming bogged down. The North Korean People’s Army (NKPA), particularly early in the war, failed to send infantry along with its tanks in the attack. As a result, once the United States and Republic of Korea Army (ROKA, South Koreans) obtained the 3.5-inch bazooka rocket launcher, communist tank losses soared. This, coupled with heavy armor losses from United Nations Command (UNC) air attacks, ended the threat of NKPA armor.

    Both UNC and communist tanks were often employed for long-range, pinpoint sniping fire against enemy positions. Worked to the tops of hills, these mobile “pill boxes” could be dug in, and they proved highly effective in that role.

    The NKPA and Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPVA, Chinese communist) during the Korean War employed the Russian-built T-34/85 tank, reputed to be one of the best tanks in World War II. They also utilized the BA-64 armored car. United Nations (U.N.) forces employed the U.S. M-24 light tank; the M4A3 (Sherman), with some variants; the M-26 (Pershing); the M-46 (Patton) tanks; and the British Churchill, Centurion, and some Cromwell tanks. Early in the war, South Korean and U.S. forces used a few M-8 (Greyhound) armored cars. The U.S. Army also used the M-29C Weasel cargo carrier, M-39 armored personnel carriers (APCs), and M-20 armored cars.

    Because there were a number of models and variants for each of the tanks discussed below, it is difficult to list specifications that are true of each major type of tank. What follows are typical specifications and characteristics and do not necessarily describe mutations resulting from model changes and other variants.

    North Korea & China



    T-34/85. This model evolved from the T-34/76, which was equipped with a 76-mm gun. The North Korean People’s Army was reported to have 150 T34/85 tanks at the beginning of the Korean War.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 85 mm

    Machine guns: two 7.62 mm (one in bow and one coaxially with the main gun)

    Weight (combat loaded): 35 short tons

    Length (not including gun): 19 feet 7 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 7 feet 11 inches

    Armor: turret front, 90 mm; hull front, 47 mm; hull rear, 60 mm

    Ammunition carried: 55 rounds for main gun; 2,745 rounds for 7.62.

    Engine: 12-cylinder diesel, 493 hp

    Maximum speed: 31–34 mph

    Armor penetration at 500 yards: 114 mm

    Range: 86 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 5 inches

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 2 inches
    United States



    M4A3 and M4A3E8 (Sherman)



    This tank was the mainstay of U.S. armor during World War II. There were many models and variants of the basic design, including dozers, 105-mm howitzers, rocket launchers, retrievers, flamethrowers, etc. M4A3E8 models carried a small metal box affixed to the right rear, containing an EE-8 sound-powered telephone, enabling an infantryman to communicate with the tank commander.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one of which was mounted in the bow and the other coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber antiaircraft gun, mounted on the top of the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 37 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 9 inches

    Armor: turret front, 2.5 inches, plus a gun shield of 3.5 inches (6 inches overall); hull front, tapered from 2.5 inches at the top to 4.5 inches at the bottom; hull sides and rear, 1.5 inches

    Ammunition carried: officially, 71 rounds for main gun; 6,150 rounds for .30 caliber; 600 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 26 mph

    Armor penetration: HVAP (High velocity armor piercing) 5.3 inches at 1000 yards; other ammunition, 3.5 inches at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 6 inches

    A tank retriever removes the damaged turret from a M4A3 Sherman tank
    M-26 (Pershing)



    The M-26 was developed near the end of World War II and is classified as a heavy tank.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow and one coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 46 tons

    Length (not including gun): 21 feet 2 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 1 inch

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum elsewhere, 13 mm

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90-mm gun; 5,000 rounds of .30 caliber; 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 25 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet 10 inches

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 11 inches


    An M26 Pershing tank grinds along a narrow mountain road
    M-46 (Patton)



    The M-46, an improved model of the M-26, was developed just after the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one mounted in the bow, the other coaxially with the main gun; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 48.5 tons

    Length (not including gun): 20 feet 10 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 3 inches

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum of 13 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90 mm; 5,000 of .30 caliber and 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Continental 810-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 31–37 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 80 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 6 inches
    M-24 (Chaffee)



    This was a light tank, employed by reconnaissance units. However, in the U.S. Army divisions in Japan before the war, it was the only type of tank available and all of them were in what was supposed to be the divisional heavy tank battalions. Each division had about 15 to 17 M-24 tanks at the time.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow, the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft mounted atop turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 20.25 tons

    Length (not including gun): 16 feet 6 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 8 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 8 feet 1 inch

    Armor: 38 mm turret front; minimum of 10 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 48 rounds for 75 mm; 3,750 rounds for .30 caliber; 440 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: two Cadillac V-8s, 110 hp, gasoline

    Maximum speed: 35 mph

    Armor penetration: 70 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 110 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet
    M8 Armored Car



    This was the heaviest armored vehicle in the ROK Army at the beginning of the war. It had 27 of them. U.S. reconnaissance units also had a few of these cars at the time.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 37 mm

    Machine guns: one .30-caliber mounted coaxially; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 8.75 tons

    Length: 16 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 8 feet 4 inches

    Height (including machine gun): 7 feet 4½ inches

    Armor: 20-mm turret front; minimum of 3 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 80 rounds for 37-mm; approximately 3,000 for .30 caliber and 400 rounds for the .50 caliber

    Engine: Hercules 6 cylinder gasoline, 79 hp

    Maximum speed: 56 mph

    Armor penetration: 48 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 300–350 miles

    Fording depth: 2 feet 8 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 1 foot
     
    British



    United Kingdom forces fighting in Korea employed the Churchill Infantry tank and the heavy Centurion. The British also used the A27M Cromwell and A34 Comet tanks in Korea. Canadians brought M10 Achilles 17-pounder self-propelled guns but soon replaced them with U.S. Sherman tanks.



    Churchill VII Infantry Tank



    Variants included ones mounting a 95-mm howitzer, flamethrower, bridge layer, mortar and recovery vehicles. Most used in Korea were the Mark III.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one mounted forward in the hull, the other coaxially with the main gun

    Weight (combat loaded): 44.8 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet

    Height (to top of turret): 11 feet 4 inches

    Armor: turret front, 152 mm; minimum 25 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 84 rounds for 75 mm; amount for machine guns unknown

    Engine: Bedford twin-six gasoline, 350 hp

    Maximum speed: 15.5 mph

    Armor penetration: 68 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 90 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 6 inches

    Trench crossing: 10 feet
    Centurion Medium (Cruiser) Mk-5.



    Variants include 105-mm gun, armored recovery, bridge layer and 165-mm demolition charge projector engineer. Its heavy weight (58 tons) and width (11 feet) made it too heavy and too wide for most bridges in South Korea.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 20 pounder (83.4-mm) gun

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one on commander’s cupola and one coaxially with main gun. In addition this model carried two six-barreled smoke dischargers.

    Weight (combat loaded): 58 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 9½ inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 11½ inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 7¾ inches

    Armor: 152 mm on turret front

    Ammunition carried: 64 rounds for 20 pounder; 4,250 rounds for machine guns

    Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor 4B, 12-cylinder gasoline, 650 hp

    Maximum speed: 21.5 mph

    Armor penetration: approximately 120 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 60 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 9 inches (could be prepared to ford 9 feet)

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 11 feet
    Cromwell A27M Reconnaissance



    Originally produced near the end of World War II and outclassed by German armor from the start of its production, it was nonetheless very reliable.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one firing forward from the turret, the other in the bow

    Weight: 28 tons

    Armor: 76 mm

    Engine: Rolls Royce V-12 Meteor, 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 40 mph
    Comet A34 Heavy Cruiser



    The Comet entered service immediately after the Cromwell at the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76.2 mm, but known as a 77 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one coaxial and the other in the bow

    Weight: 33 tons

    Armor: 101 mm

    Engine: 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 29 mph

    —Uzal W. Ent

    Sources

    Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu,(1961).

    Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War II,(1969).

    Foss, Christopher F. Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, (1971).

    Hunnicutt, Richard & P. Sherman, (1978).

    Macksey, Kenneth, and John H. Batchelor. Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle,(1976).

    Special thanks for ABC-Clio Inc., for permission to reprint from Encyclopedia of the Korean War, (2000)

    [#printed] => 1 ) [#sorted] => 1 [#children] =>

    It is a dictum of modern war that armor and infantry be employed as a team in battle. Infantrymen and tanks provide mutual support and protection. Tanks without accompanying infantry are vulnerable to enemy tank-killer weapons; infantry without accompanying tanks is vulnerable to small arms, machine guns and other direct-fire weapons. Infantrymen protect the tanks from the tank killers and the tanks engage enemy direct-fire weapons. Armor offensive tactics also envision armor employed in large formations, en masse, to overwhelm an enemy and make deep penetrations.

    But armor in Korea was rarely used in this fashion, especially after the war became one of position and stalemate. The mountainous terrain and narrow valleys of Korea, and, in the spring and summer, flooded rice paddies, made it difficult to employ more than a few tanks in one location. Attempts to employ them in larger concentrations invariably led to a number of the tanks becoming bogged down. The North Korean People’s Army (NKPA), particularly early in the war, failed to send infantry along with its tanks in the attack. As a result, once the United States and Republic of Korea Army (ROKA, South Koreans) obtained the 3.5-inch bazooka rocket launcher, communist tank losses soared. This, coupled with heavy armor losses from United Nations Command (UNC) air attacks, ended the threat of NKPA armor.

    Both UNC and communist tanks were often employed for long-range, pinpoint sniping fire against enemy positions. Worked to the tops of hills, these mobile “pill boxes” could be dug in, and they proved highly effective in that role.

    The NKPA and Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPVA, Chinese communist) during the Korean War employed the Russian-built T-34/85 tank, reputed to be one of the best tanks in World War II. They also utilized the BA-64 armored car. United Nations (U.N.) forces employed the U.S. M-24 light tank; the M4A3 (Sherman), with some variants; the M-26 (Pershing); the M-46 (Patton) tanks; and the British Churchill, Centurion, and some Cromwell tanks. Early in the war, South Korean and U.S. forces used a few M-8 (Greyhound) armored cars. The U.S. Army also used the M-29C Weasel cargo carrier, M-39 armored personnel carriers (APCs), and M-20 armored cars.

    Because there were a number of models and variants for each of the tanks discussed below, it is difficult to list specifications that are true of each major type of tank. What follows are typical specifications and characteristics and do not necessarily describe mutations resulting from model changes and other variants.

    North Korea & China



    T-34/85. This model evolved from the T-34/76, which was equipped with a 76-mm gun. The North Korean People’s Army was reported to have 150 T34/85 tanks at the beginning of the Korean War.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 85 mm

    Machine guns: two 7.62 mm (one in bow and one coaxially with the main gun)

    Weight (combat loaded): 35 short tons

    Length (not including gun): 19 feet 7 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 7 feet 11 inches

    Armor: turret front, 90 mm; hull front, 47 mm; hull rear, 60 mm

    Ammunition carried: 55 rounds for main gun; 2,745 rounds for 7.62.

    Engine: 12-cylinder diesel, 493 hp

    Maximum speed: 31–34 mph

    Armor penetration at 500 yards: 114 mm

    Range: 86 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 5 inches

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 2 inches
    United States



    M4A3 and M4A3E8 (Sherman)



    This tank was the mainstay of U.S. armor during World War II. There were many models and variants of the basic design, including dozers, 105-mm howitzers, rocket launchers, retrievers, flamethrowers, etc. M4A3E8 models carried a small metal box affixed to the right rear, containing an EE-8 sound-powered telephone, enabling an infantryman to communicate with the tank commander.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one of which was mounted in the bow and the other coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber antiaircraft gun, mounted on the top of the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 37 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 9 inches

    Armor: turret front, 2.5 inches, plus a gun shield of 3.5 inches (6 inches overall); hull front, tapered from 2.5 inches at the top to 4.5 inches at the bottom; hull sides and rear, 1.5 inches

    Ammunition carried: officially, 71 rounds for main gun; 6,150 rounds for .30 caliber; 600 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 26 mph

    Armor penetration: HVAP (High velocity armor piercing) 5.3 inches at 1000 yards; other ammunition, 3.5 inches at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 6 inches

    A tank retriever removes the damaged turret from a M4A3 Sherman tank
    M-26 (Pershing)



    The M-26 was developed near the end of World War II and is classified as a heavy tank.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow and one coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 46 tons

    Length (not including gun): 21 feet 2 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 1 inch

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum elsewhere, 13 mm

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90-mm gun; 5,000 rounds of .30 caliber; 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 25 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet 10 inches

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 11 inches


    An M26 Pershing tank grinds along a narrow mountain road
    M-46 (Patton)



    The M-46, an improved model of the M-26, was developed just after the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one mounted in the bow, the other coaxially with the main gun; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 48.5 tons

    Length (not including gun): 20 feet 10 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 3 inches

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum of 13 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90 mm; 5,000 of .30 caliber and 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Continental 810-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 31–37 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 80 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 6 inches
    M-24 (Chaffee)



    This was a light tank, employed by reconnaissance units. However, in the U.S. Army divisions in Japan before the war, it was the only type of tank available and all of them were in what was supposed to be the divisional heavy tank battalions. Each division had about 15 to 17 M-24 tanks at the time.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow, the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft mounted atop turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 20.25 tons

    Length (not including gun): 16 feet 6 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 8 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 8 feet 1 inch

    Armor: 38 mm turret front; minimum of 10 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 48 rounds for 75 mm; 3,750 rounds for .30 caliber; 440 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: two Cadillac V-8s, 110 hp, gasoline

    Maximum speed: 35 mph

    Armor penetration: 70 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 110 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet
    M8 Armored Car



    This was the heaviest armored vehicle in the ROK Army at the beginning of the war. It had 27 of them. U.S. reconnaissance units also had a few of these cars at the time.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 37 mm

    Machine guns: one .30-caliber mounted coaxially; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 8.75 tons

    Length: 16 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 8 feet 4 inches

    Height (including machine gun): 7 feet 4½ inches

    Armor: 20-mm turret front; minimum of 3 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 80 rounds for 37-mm; approximately 3,000 for .30 caliber and 400 rounds for the .50 caliber

    Engine: Hercules 6 cylinder gasoline, 79 hp

    Maximum speed: 56 mph

    Armor penetration: 48 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 300–350 miles

    Fording depth: 2 feet 8 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 1 foot
     
    British



    United Kingdom forces fighting in Korea employed the Churchill Infantry tank and the heavy Centurion. The British also used the A27M Cromwell and A34 Comet tanks in Korea. Canadians brought M10 Achilles 17-pounder self-propelled guns but soon replaced them with U.S. Sherman tanks.



    Churchill VII Infantry Tank



    Variants included ones mounting a 95-mm howitzer, flamethrower, bridge layer, mortar and recovery vehicles. Most used in Korea were the Mark III.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one mounted forward in the hull, the other coaxially with the main gun

    Weight (combat loaded): 44.8 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet

    Height (to top of turret): 11 feet 4 inches

    Armor: turret front, 152 mm; minimum 25 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 84 rounds for 75 mm; amount for machine guns unknown

    Engine: Bedford twin-six gasoline, 350 hp

    Maximum speed: 15.5 mph

    Armor penetration: 68 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 90 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 6 inches

    Trench crossing: 10 feet
    Centurion Medium (Cruiser) Mk-5.



    Variants include 105-mm gun, armored recovery, bridge layer and 165-mm demolition charge projector engineer. Its heavy weight (58 tons) and width (11 feet) made it too heavy and too wide for most bridges in South Korea.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 20 pounder (83.4-mm) gun

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one on commander’s cupola and one coaxially with main gun. In addition this model carried two six-barreled smoke dischargers.

    Weight (combat loaded): 58 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 9½ inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 11½ inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 7¾ inches

    Armor: 152 mm on turret front

    Ammunition carried: 64 rounds for 20 pounder; 4,250 rounds for machine guns

    Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor 4B, 12-cylinder gasoline, 650 hp

    Maximum speed: 21.5 mph

    Armor penetration: approximately 120 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 60 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 9 inches (could be prepared to ford 9 feet)

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 11 feet
    Cromwell A27M Reconnaissance



    Originally produced near the end of World War II and outclassed by German armor from the start of its production, it was nonetheless very reliable.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one firing forward from the turret, the other in the bow

    Weight: 28 tons

    Armor: 76 mm

    Engine: Rolls Royce V-12 Meteor, 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 40 mph
    Comet A34 Heavy Cruiser



    The Comet entered service immediately after the Cromwell at the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76.2 mm, but known as a 77 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one coaxial and the other in the bow

    Weight: 33 tons

    Armor: 101 mm

    Engine: 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 29 mph

    —Uzal W. Ent

    Sources

    Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu,(1961).

    Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War II,(1969).

    Foss, Christopher F. Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, (1971).

    Hunnicutt, Richard & P. Sherman, (1978).

    Macksey, Kenneth, and John H. Batchelor. Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle,(1976).

    Special thanks for ABC-Clio Inc., for permission to reprint from Encyclopedia of the Korean War, (2000)

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    It is a dictum of modern war that armor and infantry be employed as a team in battle. Infantrymen and tanks provide mutual support and protection. Tanks without accompanying infantry are vulnerable to enemy tank-killer weapons; infantry without accompanying tanks is vulnerable to small arms, machine guns and other direct-fire weapons. Infantrymen protect the tanks from the tank killers and the tanks engage enemy direct-fire weapons. Armor offensive tactics also envision armor employed in large formations, en masse, to overwhelm an enemy and make deep penetrations.

    But armor in Korea was rarely used in this fashion, especially after the war became one of position and stalemate. The mountainous terrain and narrow valleys of Korea, and, in the spring and summer, flooded rice paddies, made it difficult to employ more than a few tanks in one location. Attempts to employ them in larger concentrations invariably led to a number of the tanks becoming bogged down. The North Korean People’s Army (NKPA), particularly early in the war, failed to send infantry along with its tanks in the attack. As a result, once the United States and Republic of Korea Army (ROKA, South Koreans) obtained the 3.5-inch bazooka rocket launcher, communist tank losses soared. This, coupled with heavy armor losses from United Nations Command (UNC) air attacks, ended the threat of NKPA armor.

    Both UNC and communist tanks were often employed for long-range, pinpoint sniping fire against enemy positions. Worked to the tops of hills, these mobile “pill boxes” could be dug in, and they proved highly effective in that role.

    The NKPA and Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPVA, Chinese communist) during the Korean War employed the Russian-built T-34/85 tank, reputed to be one of the best tanks in World War II. They also utilized the BA-64 armored car. United Nations (U.N.) forces employed the U.S. M-24 light tank; the M4A3 (Sherman), with some variants; the M-26 (Pershing); the M-46 (Patton) tanks; and the British Churchill, Centurion, and some Cromwell tanks. Early in the war, South Korean and U.S. forces used a few M-8 (Greyhound) armored cars. The U.S. Army also used the M-29C Weasel cargo carrier, M-39 armored personnel carriers (APCs), and M-20 armored cars.

    Because there were a number of models and variants for each of the tanks discussed below, it is difficult to list specifications that are true of each major type of tank. What follows are typical specifications and characteristics and do not necessarily describe mutations resulting from model changes and other variants.

    North Korea & China



    T-34/85. This model evolved from the T-34/76, which was equipped with a 76-mm gun. The North Korean People’s Army was reported to have 150 T34/85 tanks at the beginning of the Korean War.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 85 mm

    Machine guns: two 7.62 mm (one in bow and one coaxially with the main gun)

    Weight (combat loaded): 35 short tons

    Length (not including gun): 19 feet 7 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 7 feet 11 inches

    Armor: turret front, 90 mm; hull front, 47 mm; hull rear, 60 mm

    Ammunition carried: 55 rounds for main gun; 2,745 rounds for 7.62.

    Engine: 12-cylinder diesel, 493 hp

    Maximum speed: 31–34 mph

    Armor penetration at 500 yards: 114 mm

    Range: 86 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 5 inches

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 2 inches
    United States



    M4A3 and M4A3E8 (Sherman)



    This tank was the mainstay of U.S. armor during World War II. There were many models and variants of the basic design, including dozers, 105-mm howitzers, rocket launchers, retrievers, flamethrowers, etc. M4A3E8 models carried a small metal box affixed to the right rear, containing an EE-8 sound-powered telephone, enabling an infantryman to communicate with the tank commander.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one of which was mounted in the bow and the other coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber antiaircraft gun, mounted on the top of the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 37 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 9 inches

    Armor: turret front, 2.5 inches, plus a gun shield of 3.5 inches (6 inches overall); hull front, tapered from 2.5 inches at the top to 4.5 inches at the bottom; hull sides and rear, 1.5 inches

    Ammunition carried: officially, 71 rounds for main gun; 6,150 rounds for .30 caliber; 600 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 26 mph

    Armor penetration: HVAP (High velocity armor piercing) 5.3 inches at 1000 yards; other ammunition, 3.5 inches at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 6 inches

    A tank retriever removes the damaged turret from a M4A3 Sherman tank
    M-26 (Pershing)



    The M-26 was developed near the end of World War II and is classified as a heavy tank.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow and one coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 46 tons

    Length (not including gun): 21 feet 2 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 1 inch

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum elsewhere, 13 mm

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90-mm gun; 5,000 rounds of .30 caliber; 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 25 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet 10 inches

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 11 inches


    An M26 Pershing tank grinds along a narrow mountain road
    M-46 (Patton)



    The M-46, an improved model of the M-26, was developed just after the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one mounted in the bow, the other coaxially with the main gun; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 48.5 tons

    Length (not including gun): 20 feet 10 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 3 inches

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum of 13 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90 mm; 5,000 of .30 caliber and 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Continental 810-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 31–37 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 80 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 6 inches
    M-24 (Chaffee)



    This was a light tank, employed by reconnaissance units. However, in the U.S. Army divisions in Japan before the war, it was the only type of tank available and all of them were in what was supposed to be the divisional heavy tank battalions. Each division had about 15 to 17 M-24 tanks at the time.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow, the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft mounted atop turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 20.25 tons

    Length (not including gun): 16 feet 6 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 8 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 8 feet 1 inch

    Armor: 38 mm turret front; minimum of 10 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 48 rounds for 75 mm; 3,750 rounds for .30 caliber; 440 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: two Cadillac V-8s, 110 hp, gasoline

    Maximum speed: 35 mph

    Armor penetration: 70 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 110 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet
    M8 Armored Car



    This was the heaviest armored vehicle in the ROK Army at the beginning of the war. It had 27 of them. U.S. reconnaissance units also had a few of these cars at the time.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 37 mm

    Machine guns: one .30-caliber mounted coaxially; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 8.75 tons

    Length: 16 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 8 feet 4 inches

    Height (including machine gun): 7 feet 4½ inches

    Armor: 20-mm turret front; minimum of 3 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 80 rounds for 37-mm; approximately 3,000 for .30 caliber and 400 rounds for the .50 caliber

    Engine: Hercules 6 cylinder gasoline, 79 hp

    Maximum speed: 56 mph

    Armor penetration: 48 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 300–350 miles

    Fording depth: 2 feet 8 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 1 foot
     
    British



    United Kingdom forces fighting in Korea employed the Churchill Infantry tank and the heavy Centurion. The British also used the A27M Cromwell and A34 Comet tanks in Korea. Canadians brought M10 Achilles 17-pounder self-propelled guns but soon replaced them with U.S. Sherman tanks.



    Churchill VII Infantry Tank



    Variants included ones mounting a 95-mm howitzer, flamethrower, bridge layer, mortar and recovery vehicles. Most used in Korea were the Mark III.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one mounted forward in the hull, the other coaxially with the main gun

    Weight (combat loaded): 44.8 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet

    Height (to top of turret): 11 feet 4 inches

    Armor: turret front, 152 mm; minimum 25 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 84 rounds for 75 mm; amount for machine guns unknown

    Engine: Bedford twin-six gasoline, 350 hp

    Maximum speed: 15.5 mph

    Armor penetration: 68 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 90 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 6 inches

    Trench crossing: 10 feet
    Centurion Medium (Cruiser) Mk-5.



    Variants include 105-mm gun, armored recovery, bridge layer and 165-mm demolition charge projector engineer. Its heavy weight (58 tons) and width (11 feet) made it too heavy and too wide for most bridges in South Korea.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 20 pounder (83.4-mm) gun

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one on commander’s cupola and one coaxially with main gun. In addition this model carried two six-barreled smoke dischargers.

    Weight (combat loaded): 58 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 9½ inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 11½ inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 7¾ inches

    Armor: 152 mm on turret front

    Ammunition carried: 64 rounds for 20 pounder; 4,250 rounds for machine guns

    Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor 4B, 12-cylinder gasoline, 650 hp

    Maximum speed: 21.5 mph

    Armor penetration: approximately 120 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 60 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 9 inches (could be prepared to ford 9 feet)

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 11 feet
    Cromwell A27M Reconnaissance



    Originally produced near the end of World War II and outclassed by German armor from the start of its production, it was nonetheless very reliable.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one firing forward from the turret, the other in the bow

    Weight: 28 tons

    Armor: 76 mm

    Engine: Rolls Royce V-12 Meteor, 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 40 mph
    Comet A34 Heavy Cruiser



    The Comet entered service immediately after the Cromwell at the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76.2 mm, but known as a 77 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one coaxial and the other in the bow

    Weight: 33 tons

    Armor: 101 mm

    Engine: 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 29 mph

    —Uzal W. Ent

    Sources

    Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu,(1961).

    Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War II,(1969).

    Foss, Christopher F. Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, (1971).

    Hunnicutt, Richard & P. Sherman, (1978).

    Macksey, Kenneth, and John H. Batchelor. Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle,(1976).

    Special thanks for ABC-Clio Inc., for permission to reprint from Encyclopedia of the Korean War, (2000)

    [#printed] => 1 ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => region ) [#region] => content [#printed] => 1 [#children] =>

    It is a dictum of modern war that armor and infantry be employed as a team in battle. Infantrymen and tanks provide mutual support and protection. Tanks without accompanying infantry are vulnerable to enemy tank-killer weapons; infantry without accompanying tanks is vulnerable to small arms, machine guns and other direct-fire weapons. Infantrymen protect the tanks from the tank killers and the tanks engage enemy direct-fire weapons. Armor offensive tactics also envision armor employed in large formations, en masse, to overwhelm an enemy and make deep penetrations.

    But armor in Korea was rarely used in this fashion, especially after the war became one of position and stalemate. The mountainous terrain and narrow valleys of Korea, and, in the spring and summer, flooded rice paddies, made it difficult to employ more than a few tanks in one location. Attempts to employ them in larger concentrations invariably led to a number of the tanks becoming bogged down. The North Korean People’s Army (NKPA), particularly early in the war, failed to send infantry along with its tanks in the attack. As a result, once the United States and Republic of Korea Army (ROKA, South Koreans) obtained the 3.5-inch bazooka rocket launcher, communist tank losses soared. This, coupled with heavy armor losses from United Nations Command (UNC) air attacks, ended the threat of NKPA armor.

    Both UNC and communist tanks were often employed for long-range, pinpoint sniping fire against enemy positions. Worked to the tops of hills, these mobile “pill boxes” could be dug in, and they proved highly effective in that role.

    The NKPA and Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (CPVA, Chinese communist) during the Korean War employed the Russian-built T-34/85 tank, reputed to be one of the best tanks in World War II. They also utilized the BA-64 armored car. United Nations (U.N.) forces employed the U.S. M-24 light tank; the M4A3 (Sherman), with some variants; the M-26 (Pershing); the M-46 (Patton) tanks; and the British Churchill, Centurion, and some Cromwell tanks. Early in the war, South Korean and U.S. forces used a few M-8 (Greyhound) armored cars. The U.S. Army also used the M-29C Weasel cargo carrier, M-39 armored personnel carriers (APCs), and M-20 armored cars.

    Because there were a number of models and variants for each of the tanks discussed below, it is difficult to list specifications that are true of each major type of tank. What follows are typical specifications and characteristics and do not necessarily describe mutations resulting from model changes and other variants.

    North Korea & China



    T-34/85. This model evolved from the T-34/76, which was equipped with a 76-mm gun. The North Korean People’s Army was reported to have 150 T34/85 tanks at the beginning of the Korean War.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 85 mm

    Machine guns: two 7.62 mm (one in bow and one coaxially with the main gun)

    Weight (combat loaded): 35 short tons

    Length (not including gun): 19 feet 7 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 7 feet 11 inches

    Armor: turret front, 90 mm; hull front, 47 mm; hull rear, 60 mm

    Ammunition carried: 55 rounds for main gun; 2,745 rounds for 7.62.

    Engine: 12-cylinder diesel, 493 hp

    Maximum speed: 31–34 mph

    Armor penetration at 500 yards: 114 mm

    Range: 86 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 5 inches

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 2 inches
    United States



    M4A3 and M4A3E8 (Sherman)



    This tank was the mainstay of U.S. armor during World War II. There were many models and variants of the basic design, including dozers, 105-mm howitzers, rocket launchers, retrievers, flamethrowers, etc. M4A3E8 models carried a small metal box affixed to the right rear, containing an EE-8 sound-powered telephone, enabling an infantryman to communicate with the tank commander.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one of which was mounted in the bow and the other coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber antiaircraft gun, mounted on the top of the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 37 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet

    Width (overall): 9 feet 10 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 9 inches

    Armor: turret front, 2.5 inches, plus a gun shield of 3.5 inches (6 inches overall); hull front, tapered from 2.5 inches at the top to 4.5 inches at the bottom; hull sides and rear, 1.5 inches

    Ammunition carried: officially, 71 rounds for main gun; 6,150 rounds for .30 caliber; 600 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 26 mph

    Armor penetration: HVAP (High velocity armor piercing) 5.3 inches at 1000 yards; other ammunition, 3.5 inches at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 6 inches

    A tank retriever removes the damaged turret from a M4A3 Sherman tank
    M-26 (Pershing)



    The M-26 was developed near the end of World War II and is classified as a heavy tank.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow and one coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 46 tons

    Length (not including gun): 21 feet 2 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 1 inch

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum elsewhere, 13 mm

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90-mm gun; 5,000 rounds of .30 caliber; 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Ford 500-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 25 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 100 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet 10 inches

    Trench crossing: 7 feet 11 inches


    An M26 Pershing tank grinds along a narrow mountain road
    M-46 (Patton)



    The M-46, an improved model of the M-26, was developed just after the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 90 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one mounted in the bow, the other coaxially with the main gun; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 48.5 tons

    Length (not including gun): 20 feet 10 inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 6 inches

    Height to top of turret: 9 feet 3 inches

    Armor: turret front, 102 mm; minimum of 13 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 70 rounds for the 90 mm; 5,000 of .30 caliber and 550 rounds of .50 caliber

    Engine: Continental 810-hp gasoline

    Maximum speed: 31–37 mph

    Armor penetration: 195 mm at 1,000 yards

    Range: 80 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet 6 inches
    M-24 (Chaffee)



    This was a light tank, employed by reconnaissance units. However, in the U.S. Army divisions in Japan before the war, it was the only type of tank available and all of them were in what was supposed to be the divisional heavy tank battalions. Each division had about 15 to 17 M-24 tanks at the time.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one in the bow, the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. One .50-caliber anti-aircraft mounted atop turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 20.25 tons

    Length (not including gun): 16 feet 6 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet 8 inches

    Height (to top of turret): 8 feet 1 inch

    Armor: 38 mm turret front; minimum of 10 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 48 rounds for 75 mm; 3,750 rounds for .30 caliber; 440 rounds for .50 caliber

    Engine: two Cadillac V-8s, 110 hp, gasoline

    Maximum speed: 35 mph

    Armor penetration: 70 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 110 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 8 feet
    M8 Armored Car



    This was the heaviest armored vehicle in the ROK Army at the beginning of the war. It had 27 of them. U.S. reconnaissance units also had a few of these cars at the time.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 37 mm

    Machine guns: one .30-caliber mounted coaxially; one .50-caliber anti-aircraft gun mounted atop the turret

    Weight (combat loaded): 8.75 tons

    Length: 16 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 8 feet 4 inches

    Height (including machine gun): 7 feet 4½ inches

    Armor: 20-mm turret front; minimum of 3 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 80 rounds for 37-mm; approximately 3,000 for .30 caliber and 400 rounds for the .50 caliber

    Engine: Hercules 6 cylinder gasoline, 79 hp

    Maximum speed: 56 mph

    Armor penetration: 48 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 300–350 miles

    Fording depth: 2 feet 8 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 1 foot
     
    British



    United Kingdom forces fighting in Korea employed the Churchill Infantry tank and the heavy Centurion. The British also used the A27M Cromwell and A34 Comet tanks in Korea. Canadians brought M10 Achilles 17-pounder self-propelled guns but soon replaced them with U.S. Sherman tanks.



    Churchill VII Infantry Tank



    Variants included ones mounting a 95-mm howitzer, flamethrower, bridge layer, mortar and recovery vehicles. Most used in Korea were the Mark III.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one mounted forward in the hull, the other coaxially with the main gun

    Weight (combat loaded): 44.8 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 5 inches

    Width (overall): 9 feet

    Height (to top of turret): 11 feet 4 inches

    Armor: turret front, 152 mm; minimum 25 mm elsewhere

    Ammunition carried: 84 rounds for 75 mm; amount for machine guns unknown

    Engine: Bedford twin-six gasoline, 350 hp

    Maximum speed: 15.5 mph

    Armor penetration: 68 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 90 miles

    Fording depth: 3 feet 4 inches

    Vertical obstacle: 2 feet 6 inches

    Trench crossing: 10 feet
    Centurion Medium (Cruiser) Mk-5.



    Variants include 105-mm gun, armored recovery, bridge layer and 165-mm demolition charge projector engineer. Its heavy weight (58 tons) and width (11 feet) made it too heavy and too wide for most bridges in South Korea.

    Crew: 4 men

    Main gun: 20 pounder (83.4-mm) gun

    Machine guns: two .30 caliber, one on commander’s cupola and one coaxially with main gun. In addition this model carried two six-barreled smoke dischargers.

    Weight (combat loaded): 58 tons

    Length (not including gun): 24 feet 9½ inches

    Width (overall): 11 feet 11½ inches

    Height (to top of turret): 9 feet 7¾ inches

    Armor: 152 mm on turret front

    Ammunition carried: 64 rounds for 20 pounder; 4,250 rounds for machine guns

    Engine: Rolls Royce Meteor 4B, 12-cylinder gasoline, 650 hp

    Maximum speed: 21.5 mph

    Armor penetration: approximately 120 mm at 500 yards

    Range: 60 miles

    Fording depth: 4 feet 9 inches (could be prepared to ford 9 feet)

    Vertical obstacle: 3 feet

    Trench crossing: 11 feet
    Cromwell A27M Reconnaissance



    Originally produced near the end of World War II and outclassed by German armor from the start of its production, it was nonetheless very reliable.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 75 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one firing forward from the turret, the other in the bow

    Weight: 28 tons

    Armor: 76 mm

    Engine: Rolls Royce V-12 Meteor, 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 40 mph
    Comet A34 Heavy Cruiser



    The Comet entered service immediately after the Cromwell at the end of World War II.

    Crew: 5 men

    Main gun: 76.2 mm, but known as a 77 mm

    Machine guns: two light, one coaxial and the other in the bow

    Weight: 33 tons

    Armor: 101 mm

    Engine: 600 hp

    Maximum speed: 29 mph

    —Uzal W. Ent

    Sources

    Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu,(1961).

    Chamberlain, Peter, and Chris Ellis. British and American Tanks of World War II,(1969).

    Foss, Christopher F. Armoured Fighting Vehicles of the World, (1971).

    Hunnicutt, Richard & P. Sherman, (1978).

    Macksey, Kenneth, and John H. Batchelor. Tank: A History of the Armoured Fighting Vehicle,(1976).

    Special thanks for ABC-Clio Inc., for permission to reprint from Encyclopedia of the Korean War, (2000)

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