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Hispanic Americans in Korean War

 

Photo Caption: "The Borinqueneers" was the nickname given to the U.S. Army National Guard's 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico. During service in Korea, the 65th fought valiantly, receiving numerous unit awards, four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 100 Silver Stars.
 
Hispanic-American ethnic groups, made up mostly of Puerto Ricans and others with ancestry from Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, already had distinguished themselves through combat skills and bravery during World War II.
 
In July 1950, there were about 20,000 Hispanics in the armed forces. Over the next three years, nearly 148,000 Hispanic-Americans volunteered for or were drafted into military service. Of these, approximately 60,000 Puerto Ricans served in Korea.
 
During the Korean War, most Hispanic-Americans served in the Army and Marine Corps. However, several thousand served in the Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard in both combat and combat service support branches. Commanders recognized the courage and determination of Hispanic-Americans in combat. Nine Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor and more than 100 others received Distinguished Service Crosses and Silver Stars for acts of combat bravery.
 
 
Photo Caption: First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, United States Marine Corps, scales the sea wall at Red Beach during the Inchon Landing, Sept. 15, 1950. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez sacrificed his life to save his own men and earned the Medal of Honor.
 
Honor et Fidelitas
 
Honor et Fidelitas, or "Honor and Loyalty," was the motto of the 65th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) from the United States territory of Puerto Rico. During the Korean War, this unit, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" after one of the original Indian tribes inhabiting Puerto Rico, quickly won respect on the battlefield. The 65th deployed to Korea in September 1950, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company. During October and November 1950, the 65th RCT participated in search-and-destroy missions targeting the remnants of North Korean Army units left in South Korea to harass U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) forces.
 
In late November and early December, the unit, now attached to the Army's 3d Division, fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. During Dec. 9–24, the 65th RCT joined the defensive perimeter protecting Hungnam Harbor during X Corps' withdrawal from North Korea.
 
During nine major campaigns over three years, the 65th RCT was credited with capturing 2,086 enemy soldiers and killing 5,905. The regiment received one Presidential Unit Citation (Army), one Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), one Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), one Navy Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations and the Bravery Gold Medal of Greece. Individual members of the unit were awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 120 Silver Stars.
 
Hispanics Who Received the Medal of Honor
 
Nine Hispanic-Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Korean War. Private First Class Eugene A. Obregon, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines was killed on Sept. 26, 1950, in Seoul while trying to rescue a wounded Marine who was unable to return to safety. Private First Class Joseph C. Rodriguez, an infantry assistant squad leader in the Army's Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division assaulted several well-fortified enemy positions on a ridge near Munye-ri on May 21, 1951. Rodriguez killed 15 Chinese soldiers, enabling his company to take control of the hill.
 
On the night of May 31, 1951, near Wongtong-ni, Corporal Rodolfo P. Hernandez of the Army's Company G, 187th Airborne RCT protected his platoon from attacking Chinese troops by leaving his foxhole and engaging advancing enemy soldiers with only his rifle and bayonet. Hernandez killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet and bullet wounds.
 
Private First Class Edward Gomez of Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines was killed in action while attacking a heavily-fortified North Korean position, in a bloody, combat-scarred area known as the Punchbowl, on Sept. 14, 1951. Gomez exposed himself to hostile fire as his squad moved forward and threw himself upon an enemy grenade to protect other members of his unit. His sacrifice inspired Company E to continue the offensive and eventually gain control of Hill 749.
 
On Sept. 6, 1952, Corporal Benito Martinez's unit, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, was defending a hill known as the "Sandbag Castle" near Satae-ri when the North Koreans attacked. Martinez remained alone at a forward observation post. He held his position for six hours before running out of ammunition and being killed by the enemy.
 
Staff Sergeant Ambrosio Guillen of Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines defended an outpost near Panmunjom during the final days of the armistice negotiations. When two battalions of Chinese forces attacked Guillen's platoon the evening of July 25, 1953, his leadership inspired his fellow Marines to fight against a much larger enemy force and hold the position. The enemy retreated, but Sergeant Guillen later died of wounds he had received in hand-to-hand combat during this engagement. Two days later, on July 27, 1953, the armistice was signed at Panmunjom.
 
Three other Hispanic-Americans awarded the Medal of Honor were Captain Reginald B. Desiderio, commanding officer of the Army's Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, a platoon commander with Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; and Private First Class Fernando Garcia, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines.
 
Other Hispanic-Americans in the Korea War
 
Many Hispanic-Americans who fought bravely during Korea went on to continued success in their military careers. Air Force Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr., a fighter ace of the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flew 125 combat missions over Korea. He shot down 14 MiG-15 fighter aircraft on his own and shared one additional shootdown. Captain Fernandez was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Silver Star during his tour of duty; he remained in the Air Force after the Korean War and retired with the rank of colonel.
 
Richard E. Cavazos received a battlefield commission as an Army second lieutenant in 1951 and retired in 1984 as a four-star general. He was a decorated platoon and company commander in the Korean War and served as a battalion commander in the Vietnam War.
 
Salvador E. Felices, a Puerto Rican who won a presidential appointment to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1943, transferred to the Air Force when that service was established in 1947. During the Korean War, he served as combat operations officer for the 98th Bomber Wing based in Yokota, Japan, flying 19 combat missions in B-52s over Korea in 1953.
 
Sources
Gann, Lewis H., and Peter J. Duignan. The Hispanics in the United States (1986).
Harris, William W. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th U.S. Infantry (1980).
Jessup, John E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Military (1994).
Reddy, Marlita, A., ed. Statistical Record of Hispanic Americans (1993).
United States Air Force History Support Office. Biography of Major General Salvador E. Felices (1974).
United States Department of Defense. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy. Hispanics in America's Defense. Department of Defense (1982).
United States Military History Institute. Biographical Outline of General Richard E. Cavazos (1984).

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[plid] => 363 [link_path] => [router_path] => [link_title] => Historical Photos [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [id] => historical_photos ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 1 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -42 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 363 [p2] => 1153 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => [access_arguments] => [page_callback] => [page_arguments] => [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => [title] => Historical Photos [title_callback] => [title_arguments] => [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => [type] => [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( [id] => historical_photos ) ) ) ) [1224] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Timeline [#href] => node/974 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 1224 [plid] => 363 [link_path] => node/974 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Timeline [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -42 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 0 [p1] => 363 [p2] => 1224 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Timeline [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => 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a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Publications [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/273 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => menu_tree__main_menu ) ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 363 [plid] => 0 [link_path] => node/261 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => History [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -47 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 363 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] 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  • History
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  • Volunteer
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[title] => KW60 Events [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/435 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) [#children] =>
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[#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 982 [plid] => 758 [link_path] => blog [router_path] => blog [link_title] => Other Korean War News [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => system [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -48 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 982 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => views_access [access_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;a:2:{i:0;s:16:"views_check_perm";i:1;a:1:{i:0;s:14:"access content";}}} [page_callback] => views_page [page_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:15:"enterprise_blog";i:1;s:4:"page";} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => blog [title] => Other Korean War News [title_callback] => t [title_arguments] => [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [href] => blog [access] => 1 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [422] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Public Service Announcements [#href] => node/266 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 422 [plid] => 758 [link_path] => node/266 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Public Service Announcements [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -47 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 422 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Public Service Announcements [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/266 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [427] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => last [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => KW60 Newsletter [#href] => node/271 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 427 [plid] => 758 [link_path] => node/271 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => KW60 Newsletter [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -46 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 427 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => KW60 Newsletter [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/271 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => menu_tree__main_menu ) ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 758 [plid] => 0 [link_path] => node/267 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Media & Press [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -44 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 758 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Media & Press [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/267 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) [#children] =>
  • Media & Press
  • [#printed] => 1 ) [702] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => expanded ) ) [#title] => Donate [#href] => node/444 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( [704] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => first [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => How Can I Help? [#href] => node/444 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 704 [plid] => 702 [link_path] => node/444 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => How Can I Help? [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => -49 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 702 [p2] => 704 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => How Can I Help? [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/444 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [766] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => last [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => List of Donors & Sponsors [#href] => node/445 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 766 [plid] => 702 [link_path] => node/445 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => List of Donors & Sponsors [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -48 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 702 [p2] => 766 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => List of Donors & Sponsors [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/445 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => menu_tree__main_menu ) ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 702 [plid] => 0 [link_path] => node/444 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Donate [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -43 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 702 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Donate [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/444 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) [#children] =>
  • Donate
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[#title] => Certificate [#href] => node/1402 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 1778 [plid] => 726 [link_path] => node/1402 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Certificate [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => 0 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 0 [p1] => 726 [p2] => 1778 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Certificate [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/1402 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [1831] => Array ( [#theme] => menu_link__main_menu [#attributes] => Array ( [class] => Array ( [0] => last [1] => leaf ) ) [#title] => Video Overview [#href] => node/1442 [#localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [#below] => Array ( ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 1831 [plid] => 726 [link_path] => node/1442 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Video Overview [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 0 [expanded] => 0 [weight] => 30 [depth] => 2 [customized] => 0 [p1] => 726 [p2] => 1831 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => a:1:{i:1;s:9:"node_load";} [to_arg_functions] => [access_callback] => node_access [access_arguments] => a:2:{i:0;s:4:"view";i:1;i:1;} [page_callback] => node_page_view [page_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [delivery_callback] => [tab_parent] => [tab_root] => node/% [title] => Video Overview [title_callback] => node_page_title [title_arguments] => a:1:{i:0;i:1;} [theme_callback] => [theme_arguments] => a:0:{} [type] => 6 [description] => [in_active_trail] => [access] => 1 [href] => node/1442 [localized_options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => menu_tree__main_menu ) ) [#original_link] => Array ( [menu_name] => main-menu [mlid] => 726 [plid] => 0 [link_path] => node/258 [router_path] => node/% [link_title] => Veteran Services [options] => Array ( [attributes] => Array ( ) ) [module] => menu [hidden] => 0 [external] => 0 [has_children] => 1 [expanded] => 1 [weight] => -41 [depth] => 1 [customized] => 1 [p1] => 726 [p2] => 0 [p3] => 0 [p4] => 0 [p5] => 0 [p6] => 0 [p7] => 0 [p8] => 0 [p9] => 0 [updated] => 0 [load_functions] => 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  • Veteran Services
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  • Contact Us
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    "One thing we hoped to do was to highlight some elements of the Korean War...
    John Connor's Korean War memories come back to him with a stunning clarity...
    Sgt. Dakotah Thrall is one of five winners of the annual GI Film Festival (GIFF...
    Bringing history home Story by Sgt. 1st Class Phillip Eugene 80th...
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    Photo Caption: "The Borinqueneers" was the nickname given to the U.S. Army National Guard's 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico. During service in Korea, the 65th fought valiantly, receiving numerous unit awards, four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 100 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanic-American ethnic groups, made up mostly of Puerto Ricans and others with ancestry from Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, already had distinguished themselves through combat skills and bravery during World War II.
     
    In July 1950, there were about 20,000 Hispanics in the armed forces. Over the next three years, nearly 148,000 Hispanic-Americans volunteered for or were drafted into military service. Of these, approximately 60,000 Puerto Ricans served in Korea.
     
    During the Korean War, most Hispanic-Americans served in the Army and Marine Corps. However, several thousand served in the Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard in both combat and combat service support branches. Commanders recognized the courage and determination of Hispanic-Americans in combat. Nine Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor and more than 100 others received Distinguished Service Crosses and Silver Stars for acts of combat bravery.
     
     
    Photo Caption: First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, United States Marine Corps, scales the sea wall at Red Beach during the Inchon Landing, Sept. 15, 1950. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez sacrificed his life to save his own men and earned the Medal of Honor.
     
    Honor et Fidelitas
     
    Honor et Fidelitas, or "Honor and Loyalty," was the motto of the 65th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) from the United States territory of Puerto Rico. During the Korean War, this unit, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" after one of the original Indian tribes inhabiting Puerto Rico, quickly won respect on the battlefield. The 65th deployed to Korea in September 1950, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company. During October and November 1950, the 65th RCT participated in search-and-destroy missions targeting the remnants of North Korean Army units left in South Korea to harass U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) forces.
     
    In late November and early December, the unit, now attached to the Army's 3d Division, fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. During Dec. 9–24, the 65th RCT joined the defensive perimeter protecting Hungnam Harbor during X Corps' withdrawal from North Korea.
     
    During nine major campaigns over three years, the 65th RCT was credited with capturing 2,086 enemy soldiers and killing 5,905. The regiment received one Presidential Unit Citation (Army), one Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), one Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), one Navy Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations and the Bravery Gold Medal of Greece. Individual members of the unit were awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 120 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanics Who Received the Medal of Honor
     
    Nine Hispanic-Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Korean War. Private First Class Eugene A. Obregon, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines was killed on Sept. 26, 1950, in Seoul while trying to rescue a wounded Marine who was unable to return to safety. Private First Class Joseph C. Rodriguez, an infantry assistant squad leader in the Army's Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division assaulted several well-fortified enemy positions on a ridge near Munye-ri on May 21, 1951. Rodriguez killed 15 Chinese soldiers, enabling his company to take control of the hill.
     
    On the night of May 31, 1951, near Wongtong-ni, Corporal Rodolfo P. Hernandez of the Army's Company G, 187th Airborne RCT protected his platoon from attacking Chinese troops by leaving his foxhole and engaging advancing enemy soldiers with only his rifle and bayonet. Hernandez killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet and bullet wounds.
     
    Private First Class Edward Gomez of Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines was killed in action while attacking a heavily-fortified North Korean position, in a bloody, combat-scarred area known as the Punchbowl, on Sept. 14, 1951. Gomez exposed himself to hostile fire as his squad moved forward and threw himself upon an enemy grenade to protect other members of his unit. His sacrifice inspired Company E to continue the offensive and eventually gain control of Hill 749.
     
    On Sept. 6, 1952, Corporal Benito Martinez's unit, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, was defending a hill known as the "Sandbag Castle" near Satae-ri when the North Koreans attacked. Martinez remained alone at a forward observation post. He held his position for six hours before running out of ammunition and being killed by the enemy.
     
    Staff Sergeant Ambrosio Guillen of Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines defended an outpost near Panmunjom during the final days of the armistice negotiations. When two battalions of Chinese forces attacked Guillen's platoon the evening of July 25, 1953, his leadership inspired his fellow Marines to fight against a much larger enemy force and hold the position. The enemy retreated, but Sergeant Guillen later died of wounds he had received in hand-to-hand combat during this engagement. Two days later, on July 27, 1953, the armistice was signed at Panmunjom.
     
    Three other Hispanic-Americans awarded the Medal of Honor were Captain Reginald B. Desiderio, commanding officer of the Army's Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, a platoon commander with Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; and Private First Class Fernando Garcia, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines.
     
    Other Hispanic-Americans in the Korea War
     
    Many Hispanic-Americans who fought bravely during Korea went on to continued success in their military careers. Air Force Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr., a fighter ace of the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flew 125 combat missions over Korea. He shot down 14 MiG-15 fighter aircraft on his own and shared one additional shootdown. Captain Fernandez was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Silver Star during his tour of duty; he remained in the Air Force after the Korean War and retired with the rank of colonel.
     
    Richard E. Cavazos received a battlefield commission as an Army second lieutenant in 1951 and retired in 1984 as a four-star general. He was a decorated platoon and company commander in the Korean War and served as a battalion commander in the Vietnam War.
     
    Salvador E. Felices, a Puerto Rican who won a presidential appointment to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1943, transferred to the Air Force when that service was established in 1947. During the Korean War, he served as combat operations officer for the 98th Bomber Wing based in Yokota, Japan, flying 19 combat missions in B-52s over Korea in 1953.
     
    Sources
    Gann, Lewis H., and Peter J. Duignan. The Hispanics in the United States (1986).
    Harris, William W. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th U.S. Infantry (1980).
    Jessup, John E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Military (1994).
    Reddy, Marlita, A., ed. Statistical Record of Hispanic Americans (1993).
    United States Air Force History Support Office. Biography of Major General Salvador E. Felices (1974).
    United States Department of Defense. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy. Hispanics in America's Defense. Department of Defense (1982).
    United States Military History Institute. Biographical Outline of General Richard E. Cavazos (1984).
    [summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

     

    Photo Caption: "The Borinqueneers" was the nickname given to the U.S. Army National Guard's 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico. During service in Korea, the 65th fought valiantly, receiving numerous unit awards, four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 100 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanic-American ethnic groups, made up mostly of Puerto Ricans and others with ancestry from Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, already had distinguished themselves through combat skills and bravery during World War II.
     
    In July 1950, there were about 20,000 Hispanics in the armed forces. Over the next three years, nearly 148,000 Hispanic-Americans volunteered for or were drafted into military service. Of these, approximately 60,000 Puerto Ricans served in Korea.
     
    During the Korean War, most Hispanic-Americans served in the Army and Marine Corps. However, several thousand served in the Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard in both combat and combat service support branches. Commanders recognized the courage and determination of Hispanic-Americans in combat. Nine Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor and more than 100 others received Distinguished Service Crosses and Silver Stars for acts of combat bravery.
     
     
    Photo Caption: First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, United States Marine Corps, scales the sea wall at Red Beach during the Inchon Landing, Sept. 15, 1950. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez sacrificed his life to save his own men and earned the Medal of Honor.
     
    Honor et Fidelitas
     
    Honor et Fidelitas, or "Honor and Loyalty," was the motto of the 65th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) from the United States territory of Puerto Rico. During the Korean War, this unit, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" after one of the original Indian tribes inhabiting Puerto Rico, quickly won respect on the battlefield. The 65th deployed to Korea in September 1950, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company. During October and November 1950, the 65th RCT participated in search-and-destroy missions targeting the remnants of North Korean Army units left in South Korea to harass U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) forces.
     
    In late November and early December, the unit, now attached to the Army's 3d Division, fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. During Dec. 9–24, the 65th RCT joined the defensive perimeter protecting Hungnam Harbor during X Corps' withdrawal from North Korea.
     
    During nine major campaigns over three years, the 65th RCT was credited with capturing 2,086 enemy soldiers and killing 5,905. The regiment received one Presidential Unit Citation (Army), one Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), one Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), one Navy Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations and the Bravery Gold Medal of Greece. Individual members of the unit were awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 120 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanics Who Received the Medal of Honor
     
    Nine Hispanic-Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Korean War. Private First Class Eugene A. Obregon, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines was killed on Sept. 26, 1950, in Seoul while trying to rescue a wounded Marine who was unable to return to safety. Private First Class Joseph C. Rodriguez, an infantry assistant squad leader in the Army's Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division assaulted several well-fortified enemy positions on a ridge near Munye-ri on May 21, 1951. Rodriguez killed 15 Chinese soldiers, enabling his company to take control of the hill.
     
    On the night of May 31, 1951, near Wongtong-ni, Corporal Rodolfo P. Hernandez of the Army's Company G, 187th Airborne RCT protected his platoon from attacking Chinese troops by leaving his foxhole and engaging advancing enemy soldiers with only his rifle and bayonet. Hernandez killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet and bullet wounds.
     
    Private First Class Edward Gomez of Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines was killed in action while attacking a heavily-fortified North Korean position, in a bloody, combat-scarred area known as the Punchbowl, on Sept. 14, 1951. Gomez exposed himself to hostile fire as his squad moved forward and threw himself upon an enemy grenade to protect other members of his unit. His sacrifice inspired Company E to continue the offensive and eventually gain control of Hill 749.
     
    On Sept. 6, 1952, Corporal Benito Martinez's unit, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, was defending a hill known as the "Sandbag Castle" near Satae-ri when the North Koreans attacked. Martinez remained alone at a forward observation post. He held his position for six hours before running out of ammunition and being killed by the enemy.
     
    Staff Sergeant Ambrosio Guillen of Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines defended an outpost near Panmunjom during the final days of the armistice negotiations. When two battalions of Chinese forces attacked Guillen's platoon the evening of July 25, 1953, his leadership inspired his fellow Marines to fight against a much larger enemy force and hold the position. The enemy retreated, but Sergeant Guillen later died of wounds he had received in hand-to-hand combat during this engagement. Two days later, on July 27, 1953, the armistice was signed at Panmunjom.
     
    Three other Hispanic-Americans awarded the Medal of Honor were Captain Reginald B. Desiderio, commanding officer of the Army's Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, a platoon commander with Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; and Private First Class Fernando Garcia, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines.
     
    Other Hispanic-Americans in the Korea War
     
    Many Hispanic-Americans who fought bravely during Korea went on to continued success in their military careers. Air Force Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr., a fighter ace of the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flew 125 combat missions over Korea. He shot down 14 MiG-15 fighter aircraft on his own and shared one additional shootdown. Captain Fernandez was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Silver Star during his tour of duty; he remained in the Air Force after the Korean War and retired with the rank of colonel.
     
    Richard E. Cavazos received a battlefield commission as an Army second lieutenant in 1951 and retired in 1984 as a four-star general. He was a decorated platoon and company commander in the Korean War and served as a battalion commander in the Vietnam War.
     
    Salvador E. Felices, a Puerto Rican who won a presidential appointment to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1943, transferred to the Air Force when that service was established in 1947. During the Korean War, he served as combat operations officer for the 98th Bomber Wing based in Yokota, Japan, flying 19 combat missions in B-52s over Korea in 1953.
     
    Sources
    Gann, Lewis H., and Peter J. Duignan. The Hispanics in the United States (1986).
    Harris, William W. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th U.S. Infantry (1980).
    Jessup, John E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Military (1994).
    Reddy, Marlita, A., ed. Statistical Record of Hispanic Americans (1993).
    United States Air Force History Support Office. Biography of Major General Salvador E. Felices (1974).
    United States Department of Defense. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy. Hispanics in America's Defense. Department of Defense (1982).
    United States Military History Institute. Biographical Outline of General Richard E. Cavazos (1984).
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    Photo Caption: "The Borinqueneers" was the nickname given to the U.S. Army National Guard's 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico. During service in Korea, the 65th fought valiantly, receiving numerous unit awards, four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 100 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanic-American ethnic groups, made up mostly of Puerto Ricans and others with ancestry from Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, already had distinguished themselves through combat skills and bravery during World War II.
     
    In July 1950, there were about 20,000 Hispanics in the armed forces. Over the next three years, nearly 148,000 Hispanic-Americans volunteered for or were drafted into military service. Of these, approximately 60,000 Puerto Ricans served in Korea.
     
    During the Korean War, most Hispanic-Americans served in the Army and Marine Corps. However, several thousand served in the Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard in both combat and combat service support branches. Commanders recognized the courage and determination of Hispanic-Americans in combat. Nine Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor and more than 100 others received Distinguished Service Crosses and Silver Stars for acts of combat bravery.
     
     
    Photo Caption: First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, United States Marine Corps, scales the sea wall at Red Beach during the Inchon Landing, Sept. 15, 1950. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez sacrificed his life to save his own men and earned the Medal of Honor.
     
    Honor et Fidelitas
     
    Honor et Fidelitas, or "Honor and Loyalty," was the motto of the 65th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) from the United States territory of Puerto Rico. During the Korean War, this unit, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" after one of the original Indian tribes inhabiting Puerto Rico, quickly won respect on the battlefield. The 65th deployed to Korea in September 1950, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company. During October and November 1950, the 65th RCT participated in search-and-destroy missions targeting the remnants of North Korean Army units left in South Korea to harass U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) forces.
     
    In late November and early December, the unit, now attached to the Army's 3d Division, fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. During Dec. 9–24, the 65th RCT joined the defensive perimeter protecting Hungnam Harbor during X Corps' withdrawal from North Korea.
     
    During nine major campaigns over three years, the 65th RCT was credited with capturing 2,086 enemy soldiers and killing 5,905. The regiment received one Presidential Unit Citation (Army), one Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), one Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), one Navy Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations and the Bravery Gold Medal of Greece. Individual members of the unit were awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 120 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanics Who Received the Medal of Honor
     
    Nine Hispanic-Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Korean War. Private First Class Eugene A. Obregon, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines was killed on Sept. 26, 1950, in Seoul while trying to rescue a wounded Marine who was unable to return to safety. Private First Class Joseph C. Rodriguez, an infantry assistant squad leader in the Army's Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division assaulted several well-fortified enemy positions on a ridge near Munye-ri on May 21, 1951. Rodriguez killed 15 Chinese soldiers, enabling his company to take control of the hill.
     
    On the night of May 31, 1951, near Wongtong-ni, Corporal Rodolfo P. Hernandez of the Army's Company G, 187th Airborne RCT protected his platoon from attacking Chinese troops by leaving his foxhole and engaging advancing enemy soldiers with only his rifle and bayonet. Hernandez killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet and bullet wounds.
     
    Private First Class Edward Gomez of Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines was killed in action while attacking a heavily-fortified North Korean position, in a bloody, combat-scarred area known as the Punchbowl, on Sept. 14, 1951. Gomez exposed himself to hostile fire as his squad moved forward and threw himself upon an enemy grenade to protect other members of his unit. His sacrifice inspired Company E to continue the offensive and eventually gain control of Hill 749.
     
    On Sept. 6, 1952, Corporal Benito Martinez's unit, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, was defending a hill known as the "Sandbag Castle" near Satae-ri when the North Koreans attacked. Martinez remained alone at a forward observation post. He held his position for six hours before running out of ammunition and being killed by the enemy.
     
    Staff Sergeant Ambrosio Guillen of Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines defended an outpost near Panmunjom during the final days of the armistice negotiations. When two battalions of Chinese forces attacked Guillen's platoon the evening of July 25, 1953, his leadership inspired his fellow Marines to fight against a much larger enemy force and hold the position. The enemy retreated, but Sergeant Guillen later died of wounds he had received in hand-to-hand combat during this engagement. Two days later, on July 27, 1953, the armistice was signed at Panmunjom.
     
    Three other Hispanic-Americans awarded the Medal of Honor were Captain Reginald B. Desiderio, commanding officer of the Army's Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, a platoon commander with Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; and Private First Class Fernando Garcia, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines.
     
    Other Hispanic-Americans in the Korea War
     
    Many Hispanic-Americans who fought bravely during Korea went on to continued success in their military careers. Air Force Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr., a fighter ace of the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flew 125 combat missions over Korea. He shot down 14 MiG-15 fighter aircraft on his own and shared one additional shootdown. Captain Fernandez was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Silver Star during his tour of duty; he remained in the Air Force after the Korean War and retired with the rank of colonel.
     
    Richard E. Cavazos received a battlefield commission as an Army second lieutenant in 1951 and retired in 1984 as a four-star general. He was a decorated platoon and company commander in the Korean War and served as a battalion commander in the Vietnam War.
     
    Salvador E. Felices, a Puerto Rican who won a presidential appointment to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1943, transferred to the Air Force when that service was established in 1947. During the Korean War, he served as combat operations officer for the 98th Bomber Wing based in Yokota, Japan, flying 19 combat missions in B-52s over Korea in 1953.
     
    Sources
    Gann, Lewis H., and Peter J. Duignan. The Hispanics in the United States (1986).
    Harris, William W. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th U.S. Infantry (1980).
    Jessup, John E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Military (1994).
    Reddy, Marlita, A., ed. Statistical Record of Hispanic Americans (1993).
    United States Air Force History Support Office. Biography of Major General Salvador E. Felices (1974).
    United States Department of Defense. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy. Hispanics in America's Defense. Department of Defense (1982).
    United States Military History Institute. Biographical Outline of General Richard E. Cavazos (1984).
    [summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

     

    Photo Caption: "The Borinqueneers" was the nickname given to the U.S. Army National Guard's 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico. During service in Korea, the 65th fought valiantly, receiving numerous unit awards, four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 100 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanic-American ethnic groups, made up mostly of Puerto Ricans and others with ancestry from Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, already had distinguished themselves through combat skills and bravery during World War II.
     
    In July 1950, there were about 20,000 Hispanics in the armed forces. Over the next three years, nearly 148,000 Hispanic-Americans volunteered for or were drafted into military service. Of these, approximately 60,000 Puerto Ricans served in Korea.
     
    During the Korean War, most Hispanic-Americans served in the Army and Marine Corps. However, several thousand served in the Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard in both combat and combat service support branches. Commanders recognized the courage and determination of Hispanic-Americans in combat. Nine Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor and more than 100 others received Distinguished Service Crosses and Silver Stars for acts of combat bravery.
     
     
    Photo Caption: First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, United States Marine Corps, scales the sea wall at Red Beach during the Inchon Landing, Sept. 15, 1950. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez sacrificed his life to save his own men and earned the Medal of Honor.
     
    Honor et Fidelitas
     
    Honor et Fidelitas, or "Honor and Loyalty," was the motto of the 65th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) from the United States territory of Puerto Rico. During the Korean War, this unit, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" after one of the original Indian tribes inhabiting Puerto Rico, quickly won respect on the battlefield. The 65th deployed to Korea in September 1950, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company. During October and November 1950, the 65th RCT participated in search-and-destroy missions targeting the remnants of North Korean Army units left in South Korea to harass U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) forces.
     
    In late November and early December, the unit, now attached to the Army's 3d Division, fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. During Dec. 9–24, the 65th RCT joined the defensive perimeter protecting Hungnam Harbor during X Corps' withdrawal from North Korea.
     
    During nine major campaigns over three years, the 65th RCT was credited with capturing 2,086 enemy soldiers and killing 5,905. The regiment received one Presidential Unit Citation (Army), one Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), one Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), one Navy Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations and the Bravery Gold Medal of Greece. Individual members of the unit were awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 120 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanics Who Received the Medal of Honor
     
    Nine Hispanic-Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Korean War. Private First Class Eugene A. Obregon, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines was killed on Sept. 26, 1950, in Seoul while trying to rescue a wounded Marine who was unable to return to safety. Private First Class Joseph C. Rodriguez, an infantry assistant squad leader in the Army's Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division assaulted several well-fortified enemy positions on a ridge near Munye-ri on May 21, 1951. Rodriguez killed 15 Chinese soldiers, enabling his company to take control of the hill.
     
    On the night of May 31, 1951, near Wongtong-ni, Corporal Rodolfo P. Hernandez of the Army's Company G, 187th Airborne RCT protected his platoon from attacking Chinese troops by leaving his foxhole and engaging advancing enemy soldiers with only his rifle and bayonet. Hernandez killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet and bullet wounds.
     
    Private First Class Edward Gomez of Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines was killed in action while attacking a heavily-fortified North Korean position, in a bloody, combat-scarred area known as the Punchbowl, on Sept. 14, 1951. Gomez exposed himself to hostile fire as his squad moved forward and threw himself upon an enemy grenade to protect other members of his unit. His sacrifice inspired Company E to continue the offensive and eventually gain control of Hill 749.
     
    On Sept. 6, 1952, Corporal Benito Martinez's unit, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, was defending a hill known as the "Sandbag Castle" near Satae-ri when the North Koreans attacked. Martinez remained alone at a forward observation post. He held his position for six hours before running out of ammunition and being killed by the enemy.
     
    Staff Sergeant Ambrosio Guillen of Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines defended an outpost near Panmunjom during the final days of the armistice negotiations. When two battalions of Chinese forces attacked Guillen's platoon the evening of July 25, 1953, his leadership inspired his fellow Marines to fight against a much larger enemy force and hold the position. The enemy retreated, but Sergeant Guillen later died of wounds he had received in hand-to-hand combat during this engagement. Two days later, on July 27, 1953, the armistice was signed at Panmunjom.
     
    Three other Hispanic-Americans awarded the Medal of Honor were Captain Reginald B. Desiderio, commanding officer of the Army's Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, a platoon commander with Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; and Private First Class Fernando Garcia, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines.
     
    Other Hispanic-Americans in the Korea War
     
    Many Hispanic-Americans who fought bravely during Korea went on to continued success in their military careers. Air Force Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr., a fighter ace of the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flew 125 combat missions over Korea. He shot down 14 MiG-15 fighter aircraft on his own and shared one additional shootdown. Captain Fernandez was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Silver Star during his tour of duty; he remained in the Air Force after the Korean War and retired with the rank of colonel.
     
    Richard E. Cavazos received a battlefield commission as an Army second lieutenant in 1951 and retired in 1984 as a four-star general. He was a decorated platoon and company commander in the Korean War and served as a battalion commander in the Vietnam War.
     
    Salvador E. Felices, a Puerto Rican who won a presidential appointment to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1943, transferred to the Air Force when that service was established in 1947. During the Korean War, he served as combat operations officer for the 98th Bomber Wing based in Yokota, Japan, flying 19 combat missions in B-52s over Korea in 1953.
     
    Sources
    Gann, Lewis H., and Peter J. Duignan. The Hispanics in the United States (1986).
    Harris, William W. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th U.S. Infantry (1980).
    Jessup, John E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Military (1994).
    Reddy, Marlita, A., ed. Statistical Record of Hispanic Americans (1993).
    United States Air Force History Support Office. Biography of Major General Salvador E. Felices (1974).
    United States Department of Defense. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy. Hispanics in America's Defense. Department of Defense (1982).
    United States Military History Institute. Biographical Outline of General Richard E. Cavazos (1984).
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    Photo Caption: "The Borinqueneers" was the nickname given to the U.S. Army National Guard's 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico. During service in Korea, the 65th fought valiantly, receiving numerous unit awards, four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 100 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanic-American ethnic groups, made up mostly of Puerto Ricans and others with ancestry from Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, already had distinguished themselves through combat skills and bravery during World War II.
     
    In July 1950, there were about 20,000 Hispanics in the armed forces. Over the next three years, nearly 148,000 Hispanic-Americans volunteered for or were drafted into military service. Of these, approximately 60,000 Puerto Ricans served in Korea.
     
    During the Korean War, most Hispanic-Americans served in the Army and Marine Corps. However, several thousand served in the Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard in both combat and combat service support branches. Commanders recognized the courage and determination of Hispanic-Americans in combat. Nine Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor and more than 100 others received Distinguished Service Crosses and Silver Stars for acts of combat bravery.
     
     
    Photo Caption: First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, United States Marine Corps, scales the sea wall at Red Beach during the Inchon Landing, Sept. 15, 1950. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez sacrificed his life to save his own men and earned the Medal of Honor.
     
    Honor et Fidelitas
     
    Honor et Fidelitas, or "Honor and Loyalty," was the motto of the 65th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) from the United States territory of Puerto Rico. During the Korean War, this unit, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" after one of the original Indian tribes inhabiting Puerto Rico, quickly won respect on the battlefield. The 65th deployed to Korea in September 1950, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company. During October and November 1950, the 65th RCT participated in search-and-destroy missions targeting the remnants of North Korean Army units left in South Korea to harass U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) forces.
     
    In late November and early December, the unit, now attached to the Army's 3d Division, fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. During Dec. 9–24, the 65th RCT joined the defensive perimeter protecting Hungnam Harbor during X Corps' withdrawal from North Korea.
     
    During nine major campaigns over three years, the 65th RCT was credited with capturing 2,086 enemy soldiers and killing 5,905. The regiment received one Presidential Unit Citation (Army), one Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), one Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), one Navy Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations and the Bravery Gold Medal of Greece. Individual members of the unit were awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 120 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanics Who Received the Medal of Honor
     
    Nine Hispanic-Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Korean War. Private First Class Eugene A. Obregon, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines was killed on Sept. 26, 1950, in Seoul while trying to rescue a wounded Marine who was unable to return to safety. Private First Class Joseph C. Rodriguez, an infantry assistant squad leader in the Army's Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division assaulted several well-fortified enemy positions on a ridge near Munye-ri on May 21, 1951. Rodriguez killed 15 Chinese soldiers, enabling his company to take control of the hill.
     
    On the night of May 31, 1951, near Wongtong-ni, Corporal Rodolfo P. Hernandez of the Army's Company G, 187th Airborne RCT protected his platoon from attacking Chinese troops by leaving his foxhole and engaging advancing enemy soldiers with only his rifle and bayonet. Hernandez killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet and bullet wounds.
     
    Private First Class Edward Gomez of Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines was killed in action while attacking a heavily-fortified North Korean position, in a bloody, combat-scarred area known as the Punchbowl, on Sept. 14, 1951. Gomez exposed himself to hostile fire as his squad moved forward and threw himself upon an enemy grenade to protect other members of his unit. His sacrifice inspired Company E to continue the offensive and eventually gain control of Hill 749.
     
    On Sept. 6, 1952, Corporal Benito Martinez's unit, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, was defending a hill known as the "Sandbag Castle" near Satae-ri when the North Koreans attacked. Martinez remained alone at a forward observation post. He held his position for six hours before running out of ammunition and being killed by the enemy.
     
    Staff Sergeant Ambrosio Guillen of Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines defended an outpost near Panmunjom during the final days of the armistice negotiations. When two battalions of Chinese forces attacked Guillen's platoon the evening of July 25, 1953, his leadership inspired his fellow Marines to fight against a much larger enemy force and hold the position. The enemy retreated, but Sergeant Guillen later died of wounds he had received in hand-to-hand combat during this engagement. Two days later, on July 27, 1953, the armistice was signed at Panmunjom.
     
    Three other Hispanic-Americans awarded the Medal of Honor were Captain Reginald B. Desiderio, commanding officer of the Army's Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, a platoon commander with Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; and Private First Class Fernando Garcia, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines.
     
    Other Hispanic-Americans in the Korea War
     
    Many Hispanic-Americans who fought bravely during Korea went on to continued success in their military careers. Air Force Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr., a fighter ace of the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flew 125 combat missions over Korea. He shot down 14 MiG-15 fighter aircraft on his own and shared one additional shootdown. Captain Fernandez was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Silver Star during his tour of duty; he remained in the Air Force after the Korean War and retired with the rank of colonel.
     
    Richard E. Cavazos received a battlefield commission as an Army second lieutenant in 1951 and retired in 1984 as a four-star general. He was a decorated platoon and company commander in the Korean War and served as a battalion commander in the Vietnam War.
     
    Salvador E. Felices, a Puerto Rican who won a presidential appointment to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1943, transferred to the Air Force when that service was established in 1947. During the Korean War, he served as combat operations officer for the 98th Bomber Wing based in Yokota, Japan, flying 19 combat missions in B-52s over Korea in 1953.
     
    Sources
    Gann, Lewis H., and Peter J. Duignan. The Hispanics in the United States (1986).
    Harris, William W. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th U.S. Infantry (1980).
    Jessup, John E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Military (1994).
    Reddy, Marlita, A., ed. Statistical Record of Hispanic Americans (1993).
    United States Air Force History Support Office. Biography of Major General Salvador E. Felices (1974).
    United States Department of Defense. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy. Hispanics in America's Defense. Department of Defense (1982).
    United States Military History Institute. Biographical Outline of General Richard E. Cavazos (1984).
    [summary] => [format] => full_html [safe_value] =>

     

    Photo Caption: "The Borinqueneers" was the nickname given to the U.S. Army National Guard's 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico. During service in Korea, the 65th fought valiantly, receiving numerous unit awards, four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 100 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanic-American ethnic groups, made up mostly of Puerto Ricans and others with ancestry from Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, already had distinguished themselves through combat skills and bravery during World War II.
     
    In July 1950, there were about 20,000 Hispanics in the armed forces. Over the next three years, nearly 148,000 Hispanic-Americans volunteered for or were drafted into military service. Of these, approximately 60,000 Puerto Ricans served in Korea.
     
    During the Korean War, most Hispanic-Americans served in the Army and Marine Corps. However, several thousand served in the Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard in both combat and combat service support branches. Commanders recognized the courage and determination of Hispanic-Americans in combat. Nine Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor and more than 100 others received Distinguished Service Crosses and Silver Stars for acts of combat bravery.
     
     
    Photo Caption: First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, United States Marine Corps, scales the sea wall at Red Beach during the Inchon Landing, Sept. 15, 1950. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez sacrificed his life to save his own men and earned the Medal of Honor.
     
    Honor et Fidelitas
     
    Honor et Fidelitas, or "Honor and Loyalty," was the motto of the 65th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) from the United States territory of Puerto Rico. During the Korean War, this unit, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" after one of the original Indian tribes inhabiting Puerto Rico, quickly won respect on the battlefield. The 65th deployed to Korea in September 1950, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company. During October and November 1950, the 65th RCT participated in search-and-destroy missions targeting the remnants of North Korean Army units left in South Korea to harass U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) forces.
     
    In late November and early December, the unit, now attached to the Army's 3d Division, fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. During Dec. 9–24, the 65th RCT joined the defensive perimeter protecting Hungnam Harbor during X Corps' withdrawal from North Korea.
     
    During nine major campaigns over three years, the 65th RCT was credited with capturing 2,086 enemy soldiers and killing 5,905. The regiment received one Presidential Unit Citation (Army), one Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), one Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), one Navy Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations and the Bravery Gold Medal of Greece. Individual members of the unit were awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 120 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanics Who Received the Medal of Honor
     
    Nine Hispanic-Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Korean War. Private First Class Eugene A. Obregon, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines was killed on Sept. 26, 1950, in Seoul while trying to rescue a wounded Marine who was unable to return to safety. Private First Class Joseph C. Rodriguez, an infantry assistant squad leader in the Army's Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division assaulted several well-fortified enemy positions on a ridge near Munye-ri on May 21, 1951. Rodriguez killed 15 Chinese soldiers, enabling his company to take control of the hill.
     
    On the night of May 31, 1951, near Wongtong-ni, Corporal Rodolfo P. Hernandez of the Army's Company G, 187th Airborne RCT protected his platoon from attacking Chinese troops by leaving his foxhole and engaging advancing enemy soldiers with only his rifle and bayonet. Hernandez killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet and bullet wounds.
     
    Private First Class Edward Gomez of Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines was killed in action while attacking a heavily-fortified North Korean position, in a bloody, combat-scarred area known as the Punchbowl, on Sept. 14, 1951. Gomez exposed himself to hostile fire as his squad moved forward and threw himself upon an enemy grenade to protect other members of his unit. His sacrifice inspired Company E to continue the offensive and eventually gain control of Hill 749.
     
    On Sept. 6, 1952, Corporal Benito Martinez's unit, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, was defending a hill known as the "Sandbag Castle" near Satae-ri when the North Koreans attacked. Martinez remained alone at a forward observation post. He held his position for six hours before running out of ammunition and being killed by the enemy.
     
    Staff Sergeant Ambrosio Guillen of Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines defended an outpost near Panmunjom during the final days of the armistice negotiations. When two battalions of Chinese forces attacked Guillen's platoon the evening of July 25, 1953, his leadership inspired his fellow Marines to fight against a much larger enemy force and hold the position. The enemy retreated, but Sergeant Guillen later died of wounds he had received in hand-to-hand combat during this engagement. Two days later, on July 27, 1953, the armistice was signed at Panmunjom.
     
    Three other Hispanic-Americans awarded the Medal of Honor were Captain Reginald B. Desiderio, commanding officer of the Army's Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, a platoon commander with Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; and Private First Class Fernando Garcia, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines.
     
    Other Hispanic-Americans in the Korea War
     
    Many Hispanic-Americans who fought bravely during Korea went on to continued success in their military careers. Air Force Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr., a fighter ace of the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flew 125 combat missions over Korea. He shot down 14 MiG-15 fighter aircraft on his own and shared one additional shootdown. Captain Fernandez was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Silver Star during his tour of duty; he remained in the Air Force after the Korean War and retired with the rank of colonel.
     
    Richard E. Cavazos received a battlefield commission as an Army second lieutenant in 1951 and retired in 1984 as a four-star general. He was a decorated platoon and company commander in the Korean War and served as a battalion commander in the Vietnam War.
     
    Salvador E. Felices, a Puerto Rican who won a presidential appointment to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1943, transferred to the Air Force when that service was established in 1947. During the Korean War, he served as combat operations officer for the 98th Bomber Wing based in Yokota, Japan, flying 19 combat missions in B-52s over Korea in 1953.
     
    Sources
    Gann, Lewis H., and Peter J. Duignan. The Hispanics in the United States (1986).
    Harris, William W. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th U.S. Infantry (1980).
    Jessup, John E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Military (1994).
    Reddy, Marlita, A., ed. Statistical Record of Hispanic Americans (1993).
    United States Air Force History Support Office. Biography of Major General Salvador E. Felices (1974).
    United States Department of Defense. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy. Hispanics in America's Defense. Department of Defense (1982).
    United States Military History Institute. Biographical Outline of General Richard E. Cavazos (1984).
    [safe_summary] => ) ) [#formatter] => text_default [0] => Array ( [#markup] =>

     

    Photo Caption: "The Borinqueneers" was the nickname given to the U.S. Army National Guard's 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico. During service in Korea, the 65th fought valiantly, receiving numerous unit awards, four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 100 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanic-American ethnic groups, made up mostly of Puerto Ricans and others with ancestry from Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, already had distinguished themselves through combat skills and bravery during World War II.
     
    In July 1950, there were about 20,000 Hispanics in the armed forces. Over the next three years, nearly 148,000 Hispanic-Americans volunteered for or were drafted into military service. Of these, approximately 60,000 Puerto Ricans served in Korea.
     
    During the Korean War, most Hispanic-Americans served in the Army and Marine Corps. However, several thousand served in the Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard in both combat and combat service support branches. Commanders recognized the courage and determination of Hispanic-Americans in combat. Nine Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor and more than 100 others received Distinguished Service Crosses and Silver Stars for acts of combat bravery.
     
     
    Photo Caption: First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, United States Marine Corps, scales the sea wall at Red Beach during the Inchon Landing, Sept. 15, 1950. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez sacrificed his life to save his own men and earned the Medal of Honor.
     
    Honor et Fidelitas
     
    Honor et Fidelitas, or "Honor and Loyalty," was the motto of the 65th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) from the United States territory of Puerto Rico. During the Korean War, this unit, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" after one of the original Indian tribes inhabiting Puerto Rico, quickly won respect on the battlefield. The 65th deployed to Korea in September 1950, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company. During October and November 1950, the 65th RCT participated in search-and-destroy missions targeting the remnants of North Korean Army units left in South Korea to harass U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) forces.
     
    In late November and early December, the unit, now attached to the Army's 3d Division, fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. During Dec. 9–24, the 65th RCT joined the defensive perimeter protecting Hungnam Harbor during X Corps' withdrawal from North Korea.
     
    During nine major campaigns over three years, the 65th RCT was credited with capturing 2,086 enemy soldiers and killing 5,905. The regiment received one Presidential Unit Citation (Army), one Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), one Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), one Navy Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations and the Bravery Gold Medal of Greece. Individual members of the unit were awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 120 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanics Who Received the Medal of Honor
     
    Nine Hispanic-Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Korean War. Private First Class Eugene A. Obregon, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines was killed on Sept. 26, 1950, in Seoul while trying to rescue a wounded Marine who was unable to return to safety. Private First Class Joseph C. Rodriguez, an infantry assistant squad leader in the Army's Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division assaulted several well-fortified enemy positions on a ridge near Munye-ri on May 21, 1951. Rodriguez killed 15 Chinese soldiers, enabling his company to take control of the hill.
     
    On the night of May 31, 1951, near Wongtong-ni, Corporal Rodolfo P. Hernandez of the Army's Company G, 187th Airborne RCT protected his platoon from attacking Chinese troops by leaving his foxhole and engaging advancing enemy soldiers with only his rifle and bayonet. Hernandez killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet and bullet wounds.
     
    Private First Class Edward Gomez of Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines was killed in action while attacking a heavily-fortified North Korean position, in a bloody, combat-scarred area known as the Punchbowl, on Sept. 14, 1951. Gomez exposed himself to hostile fire as his squad moved forward and threw himself upon an enemy grenade to protect other members of his unit. His sacrifice inspired Company E to continue the offensive and eventually gain control of Hill 749.
     
    On Sept. 6, 1952, Corporal Benito Martinez's unit, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, was defending a hill known as the "Sandbag Castle" near Satae-ri when the North Koreans attacked. Martinez remained alone at a forward observation post. He held his position for six hours before running out of ammunition and being killed by the enemy.
     
    Staff Sergeant Ambrosio Guillen of Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines defended an outpost near Panmunjom during the final days of the armistice negotiations. When two battalions of Chinese forces attacked Guillen's platoon the evening of July 25, 1953, his leadership inspired his fellow Marines to fight against a much larger enemy force and hold the position. The enemy retreated, but Sergeant Guillen later died of wounds he had received in hand-to-hand combat during this engagement. Two days later, on July 27, 1953, the armistice was signed at Panmunjom.
     
    Three other Hispanic-Americans awarded the Medal of Honor were Captain Reginald B. Desiderio, commanding officer of the Army's Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, a platoon commander with Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; and Private First Class Fernando Garcia, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines.
     
    Other Hispanic-Americans in the Korea War
     
    Many Hispanic-Americans who fought bravely during Korea went on to continued success in their military careers. Air Force Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr., a fighter ace of the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flew 125 combat missions over Korea. He shot down 14 MiG-15 fighter aircraft on his own and shared one additional shootdown. Captain Fernandez was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Silver Star during his tour of duty; he remained in the Air Force after the Korean War and retired with the rank of colonel.
     
    Richard E. Cavazos received a battlefield commission as an Army second lieutenant in 1951 and retired in 1984 as a four-star general. He was a decorated platoon and company commander in the Korean War and served as a battalion commander in the Vietnam War.
     
    Salvador E. Felices, a Puerto Rican who won a presidential appointment to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1943, transferred to the Air Force when that service was established in 1947. During the Korean War, he served as combat operations officer for the 98th Bomber Wing based in Yokota, Japan, flying 19 combat missions in B-52s over Korea in 1953.
     
    Sources
    Gann, Lewis H., and Peter J. Duignan. The Hispanics in the United States (1986).
    Harris, William W. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th U.S. Infantry (1980).
    Jessup, John E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Military (1994).
    Reddy, Marlita, A., ed. Statistical Record of Hispanic Americans (1993).
    United States Air Force History Support Office. Biography of Major General Salvador E. Felices (1974).
    United States Department of Defense. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy. Hispanics in America's Defense. Department of Defense (1982).
    United States Military History Institute. Biographical Outline of General Richard E. Cavazos (1984).
    ) ) [#sorted] => 1 [#children] =>

     

    Photo Caption: "The Borinqueneers" was the nickname given to the U.S. Army National Guard's 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico. During service in Korea, the 65th fought valiantly, receiving numerous unit awards, four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 100 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanic-American ethnic groups, made up mostly of Puerto Ricans and others with ancestry from Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, already had distinguished themselves through combat skills and bravery during World War II.
     
    In July 1950, there were about 20,000 Hispanics in the armed forces. Over the next three years, nearly 148,000 Hispanic-Americans volunteered for or were drafted into military service. Of these, approximately 60,000 Puerto Ricans served in Korea.
     
    During the Korean War, most Hispanic-Americans served in the Army and Marine Corps. However, several thousand served in the Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard in both combat and combat service support branches. Commanders recognized the courage and determination of Hispanic-Americans in combat. Nine Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor and more than 100 others received Distinguished Service Crosses and Silver Stars for acts of combat bravery.
     
     
    Photo Caption: First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, United States Marine Corps, scales the sea wall at Red Beach during the Inchon Landing, Sept. 15, 1950. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez sacrificed his life to save his own men and earned the Medal of Honor.
     
    Honor et Fidelitas
     
    Honor et Fidelitas, or "Honor and Loyalty," was the motto of the 65th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) from the United States territory of Puerto Rico. During the Korean War, this unit, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" after one of the original Indian tribes inhabiting Puerto Rico, quickly won respect on the battlefield. The 65th deployed to Korea in September 1950, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company. During October and November 1950, the 65th RCT participated in search-and-destroy missions targeting the remnants of North Korean Army units left in South Korea to harass U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) forces.
     
    In late November and early December, the unit, now attached to the Army's 3d Division, fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. During Dec. 9–24, the 65th RCT joined the defensive perimeter protecting Hungnam Harbor during X Corps' withdrawal from North Korea.
     
    During nine major campaigns over three years, the 65th RCT was credited with capturing 2,086 enemy soldiers and killing 5,905. The regiment received one Presidential Unit Citation (Army), one Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), one Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), one Navy Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations and the Bravery Gold Medal of Greece. Individual members of the unit were awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 120 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanics Who Received the Medal of Honor
     
    Nine Hispanic-Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Korean War. Private First Class Eugene A. Obregon, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines was killed on Sept. 26, 1950, in Seoul while trying to rescue a wounded Marine who was unable to return to safety. Private First Class Joseph C. Rodriguez, an infantry assistant squad leader in the Army's Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division assaulted several well-fortified enemy positions on a ridge near Munye-ri on May 21, 1951. Rodriguez killed 15 Chinese soldiers, enabling his company to take control of the hill.
     
    On the night of May 31, 1951, near Wongtong-ni, Corporal Rodolfo P. Hernandez of the Army's Company G, 187th Airborne RCT protected his platoon from attacking Chinese troops by leaving his foxhole and engaging advancing enemy soldiers with only his rifle and bayonet. Hernandez killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet and bullet wounds.
     
    Private First Class Edward Gomez of Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines was killed in action while attacking a heavily-fortified North Korean position, in a bloody, combat-scarred area known as the Punchbowl, on Sept. 14, 1951. Gomez exposed himself to hostile fire as his squad moved forward and threw himself upon an enemy grenade to protect other members of his unit. His sacrifice inspired Company E to continue the offensive and eventually gain control of Hill 749.
     
    On Sept. 6, 1952, Corporal Benito Martinez's unit, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, was defending a hill known as the "Sandbag Castle" near Satae-ri when the North Koreans attacked. Martinez remained alone at a forward observation post. He held his position for six hours before running out of ammunition and being killed by the enemy.
     
    Staff Sergeant Ambrosio Guillen of Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines defended an outpost near Panmunjom during the final days of the armistice negotiations. When two battalions of Chinese forces attacked Guillen's platoon the evening of July 25, 1953, his leadership inspired his fellow Marines to fight against a much larger enemy force and hold the position. The enemy retreated, but Sergeant Guillen later died of wounds he had received in hand-to-hand combat during this engagement. Two days later, on July 27, 1953, the armistice was signed at Panmunjom.
     
    Three other Hispanic-Americans awarded the Medal of Honor were Captain Reginald B. Desiderio, commanding officer of the Army's Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, a platoon commander with Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; and Private First Class Fernando Garcia, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines.
     
    Other Hispanic-Americans in the Korea War
     
    Many Hispanic-Americans who fought bravely during Korea went on to continued success in their military careers. Air Force Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr., a fighter ace of the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flew 125 combat missions over Korea. He shot down 14 MiG-15 fighter aircraft on his own and shared one additional shootdown. Captain Fernandez was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Silver Star during his tour of duty; he remained in the Air Force after the Korean War and retired with the rank of colonel.
     
    Richard E. Cavazos received a battlefield commission as an Army second lieutenant in 1951 and retired in 1984 as a four-star general. He was a decorated platoon and company commander in the Korean War and served as a battalion commander in the Vietnam War.
     
    Salvador E. Felices, a Puerto Rican who won a presidential appointment to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1943, transferred to the Air Force when that service was established in 1947. During the Korean War, he served as combat operations officer for the 98th Bomber Wing based in Yokota, Japan, flying 19 combat missions in B-52s over Korea in 1953.
     
    Sources
    Gann, Lewis H., and Peter J. Duignan. The Hispanics in the United States (1986).
    Harris, William W. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th U.S. Infantry (1980).
    Jessup, John E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Military (1994).
    Reddy, Marlita, A., ed. Statistical Record of Hispanic Americans (1993).
    United States Air Force History Support Office. Biography of Major General Salvador E. Felices (1974).
    United States Department of Defense. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy. Hispanics in America's Defense. Department of Defense (1982).
    United States Military History Institute. Biographical Outline of General Richard E. Cavazos (1984).
    [#printed] => 1 ) [#sorted] => 1 [#children] =>

     

    Photo Caption: "The Borinqueneers" was the nickname given to the U.S. Army National Guard's 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico. During service in Korea, the 65th fought valiantly, receiving numerous unit awards, four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 100 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanic-American ethnic groups, made up mostly of Puerto Ricans and others with ancestry from Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, already had distinguished themselves through combat skills and bravery during World War II.
     
    In July 1950, there were about 20,000 Hispanics in the armed forces. Over the next three years, nearly 148,000 Hispanic-Americans volunteered for or were drafted into military service. Of these, approximately 60,000 Puerto Ricans served in Korea.
     
    During the Korean War, most Hispanic-Americans served in the Army and Marine Corps. However, several thousand served in the Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard in both combat and combat service support branches. Commanders recognized the courage and determination of Hispanic-Americans in combat. Nine Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor and more than 100 others received Distinguished Service Crosses and Silver Stars for acts of combat bravery.
     
     
    Photo Caption: First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, United States Marine Corps, scales the sea wall at Red Beach during the Inchon Landing, Sept. 15, 1950. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez sacrificed his life to save his own men and earned the Medal of Honor.
     
    Honor et Fidelitas
     
    Honor et Fidelitas, or "Honor and Loyalty," was the motto of the 65th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) from the United States territory of Puerto Rico. During the Korean War, this unit, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" after one of the original Indian tribes inhabiting Puerto Rico, quickly won respect on the battlefield. The 65th deployed to Korea in September 1950, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company. During October and November 1950, the 65th RCT participated in search-and-destroy missions targeting the remnants of North Korean Army units left in South Korea to harass U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) forces.
     
    In late November and early December, the unit, now attached to the Army's 3d Division, fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. During Dec. 9–24, the 65th RCT joined the defensive perimeter protecting Hungnam Harbor during X Corps' withdrawal from North Korea.
     
    During nine major campaigns over three years, the 65th RCT was credited with capturing 2,086 enemy soldiers and killing 5,905. The regiment received one Presidential Unit Citation (Army), one Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), one Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), one Navy Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations and the Bravery Gold Medal of Greece. Individual members of the unit were awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 120 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanics Who Received the Medal of Honor
     
    Nine Hispanic-Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Korean War. Private First Class Eugene A. Obregon, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines was killed on Sept. 26, 1950, in Seoul while trying to rescue a wounded Marine who was unable to return to safety. Private First Class Joseph C. Rodriguez, an infantry assistant squad leader in the Army's Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division assaulted several well-fortified enemy positions on a ridge near Munye-ri on May 21, 1951. Rodriguez killed 15 Chinese soldiers, enabling his company to take control of the hill.
     
    On the night of May 31, 1951, near Wongtong-ni, Corporal Rodolfo P. Hernandez of the Army's Company G, 187th Airborne RCT protected his platoon from attacking Chinese troops by leaving his foxhole and engaging advancing enemy soldiers with only his rifle and bayonet. Hernandez killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet and bullet wounds.
     
    Private First Class Edward Gomez of Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines was killed in action while attacking a heavily-fortified North Korean position, in a bloody, combat-scarred area known as the Punchbowl, on Sept. 14, 1951. Gomez exposed himself to hostile fire as his squad moved forward and threw himself upon an enemy grenade to protect other members of his unit. His sacrifice inspired Company E to continue the offensive and eventually gain control of Hill 749.
     
    On Sept. 6, 1952, Corporal Benito Martinez's unit, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, was defending a hill known as the "Sandbag Castle" near Satae-ri when the North Koreans attacked. Martinez remained alone at a forward observation post. He held his position for six hours before running out of ammunition and being killed by the enemy.
     
    Staff Sergeant Ambrosio Guillen of Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines defended an outpost near Panmunjom during the final days of the armistice negotiations. When two battalions of Chinese forces attacked Guillen's platoon the evening of July 25, 1953, his leadership inspired his fellow Marines to fight against a much larger enemy force and hold the position. The enemy retreated, but Sergeant Guillen later died of wounds he had received in hand-to-hand combat during this engagement. Two days later, on July 27, 1953, the armistice was signed at Panmunjom.
     
    Three other Hispanic-Americans awarded the Medal of Honor were Captain Reginald B. Desiderio, commanding officer of the Army's Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, a platoon commander with Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; and Private First Class Fernando Garcia, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines.
     
    Other Hispanic-Americans in the Korea War
     
    Many Hispanic-Americans who fought bravely during Korea went on to continued success in their military careers. Air Force Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr., a fighter ace of the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flew 125 combat missions over Korea. He shot down 14 MiG-15 fighter aircraft on his own and shared one additional shootdown. Captain Fernandez was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Silver Star during his tour of duty; he remained in the Air Force after the Korean War and retired with the rank of colonel.
     
    Richard E. Cavazos received a battlefield commission as an Army second lieutenant in 1951 and retired in 1984 as a four-star general. He was a decorated platoon and company commander in the Korean War and served as a battalion commander in the Vietnam War.
     
    Salvador E. Felices, a Puerto Rican who won a presidential appointment to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1943, transferred to the Air Force when that service was established in 1947. During the Korean War, he served as combat operations officer for the 98th Bomber Wing based in Yokota, Japan, flying 19 combat missions in B-52s over Korea in 1953.
     
    Sources
    Gann, Lewis H., and Peter J. Duignan. The Hispanics in the United States (1986).
    Harris, William W. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th U.S. Infantry (1980).
    Jessup, John E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Military (1994).
    Reddy, Marlita, A., ed. Statistical Record of Hispanic Americans (1993).
    United States Air Force History Support Office. Biography of Major General Salvador E. Felices (1974).
    United States Department of Defense. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy. Hispanics in America's Defense. Department of Defense (1982).
    United States Military History Institute. Biographical Outline of General Richard E. Cavazos (1984).
    [#printed] => 1 ) [#block] => stdClass Object ( [bid] => 92 [module] => system [delta] => main [theme] => kw60_inq [status] => 1 [weight] => -52 [region] => content [custom] => 0 [visibility] => 0 [pages] => [title] => [cache] => -1 [subject] => ) [#weight] => 1 [#theme_wrappers] => Array ( [0] => block ) [#children] =>

     

    Photo Caption: "The Borinqueneers" was the nickname given to the U.S. Army National Guard's 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico. During service in Korea, the 65th fought valiantly, receiving numerous unit awards, four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 100 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanic-American ethnic groups, made up mostly of Puerto Ricans and others with ancestry from Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, already had distinguished themselves through combat skills and bravery during World War II.
     
    In July 1950, there were about 20,000 Hispanics in the armed forces. Over the next three years, nearly 148,000 Hispanic-Americans volunteered for or were drafted into military service. Of these, approximately 60,000 Puerto Ricans served in Korea.
     
    During the Korean War, most Hispanic-Americans served in the Army and Marine Corps. However, several thousand served in the Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard in both combat and combat service support branches. Commanders recognized the courage and determination of Hispanic-Americans in combat. Nine Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor and more than 100 others received Distinguished Service Crosses and Silver Stars for acts of combat bravery.
     
     
    Photo Caption: First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, United States Marine Corps, scales the sea wall at Red Beach during the Inchon Landing, Sept. 15, 1950. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez sacrificed his life to save his own men and earned the Medal of Honor.
     
    Honor et Fidelitas
     
    Honor et Fidelitas, or "Honor and Loyalty," was the motto of the 65th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) from the United States territory of Puerto Rico. During the Korean War, this unit, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" after one of the original Indian tribes inhabiting Puerto Rico, quickly won respect on the battlefield. The 65th deployed to Korea in September 1950, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company. During October and November 1950, the 65th RCT participated in search-and-destroy missions targeting the remnants of North Korean Army units left in South Korea to harass U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) forces.
     
    In late November and early December, the unit, now attached to the Army's 3d Division, fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. During Dec. 9–24, the 65th RCT joined the defensive perimeter protecting Hungnam Harbor during X Corps' withdrawal from North Korea.
     
    During nine major campaigns over three years, the 65th RCT was credited with capturing 2,086 enemy soldiers and killing 5,905. The regiment received one Presidential Unit Citation (Army), one Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), one Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), one Navy Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations and the Bravery Gold Medal of Greece. Individual members of the unit were awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 120 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanics Who Received the Medal of Honor
     
    Nine Hispanic-Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Korean War. Private First Class Eugene A. Obregon, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines was killed on Sept. 26, 1950, in Seoul while trying to rescue a wounded Marine who was unable to return to safety. Private First Class Joseph C. Rodriguez, an infantry assistant squad leader in the Army's Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division assaulted several well-fortified enemy positions on a ridge near Munye-ri on May 21, 1951. Rodriguez killed 15 Chinese soldiers, enabling his company to take control of the hill.
     
    On the night of May 31, 1951, near Wongtong-ni, Corporal Rodolfo P. Hernandez of the Army's Company G, 187th Airborne RCT protected his platoon from attacking Chinese troops by leaving his foxhole and engaging advancing enemy soldiers with only his rifle and bayonet. Hernandez killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet and bullet wounds.
     
    Private First Class Edward Gomez of Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines was killed in action while attacking a heavily-fortified North Korean position, in a bloody, combat-scarred area known as the Punchbowl, on Sept. 14, 1951. Gomez exposed himself to hostile fire as his squad moved forward and threw himself upon an enemy grenade to protect other members of his unit. His sacrifice inspired Company E to continue the offensive and eventually gain control of Hill 749.
     
    On Sept. 6, 1952, Corporal Benito Martinez's unit, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, was defending a hill known as the "Sandbag Castle" near Satae-ri when the North Koreans attacked. Martinez remained alone at a forward observation post. He held his position for six hours before running out of ammunition and being killed by the enemy.
     
    Staff Sergeant Ambrosio Guillen of Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines defended an outpost near Panmunjom during the final days of the armistice negotiations. When two battalions of Chinese forces attacked Guillen's platoon the evening of July 25, 1953, his leadership inspired his fellow Marines to fight against a much larger enemy force and hold the position. The enemy retreated, but Sergeant Guillen later died of wounds he had received in hand-to-hand combat during this engagement. Two days later, on July 27, 1953, the armistice was signed at Panmunjom.
     
    Three other Hispanic-Americans awarded the Medal of Honor were Captain Reginald B. Desiderio, commanding officer of the Army's Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, a platoon commander with Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; and Private First Class Fernando Garcia, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines.
     
    Other Hispanic-Americans in the Korea War
     
    Many Hispanic-Americans who fought bravely during Korea went on to continued success in their military careers. Air Force Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr., a fighter ace of the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flew 125 combat missions over Korea. He shot down 14 MiG-15 fighter aircraft on his own and shared one additional shootdown. Captain Fernandez was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Silver Star during his tour of duty; he remained in the Air Force after the Korean War and retired with the rank of colonel.
     
    Richard E. Cavazos received a battlefield commission as an Army second lieutenant in 1951 and retired in 1984 as a four-star general. He was a decorated platoon and company commander in the Korean War and served as a battalion commander in the Vietnam War.
     
    Salvador E. Felices, a Puerto Rican who won a presidential appointment to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1943, transferred to the Air Force when that service was established in 1947. During the Korean War, he served as combat operations officer for the 98th Bomber Wing based in Yokota, Japan, flying 19 combat missions in B-52s over Korea in 1953.
     
    Sources
    Gann, Lewis H., and Peter J. Duignan. The Hispanics in the United States (1986).
    Harris, William W. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th U.S. Infantry (1980).
    Jessup, John E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Military (1994).
    Reddy, Marlita, A., ed. Statistical Record of Hispanic Americans (1993).
    United States Air Force History Support Office. Biography of Major General Salvador E. Felices (1974).
    United States Department of Defense. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy. Hispanics in America's Defense. Department of Defense (1982).
    United States Military History Institute. Biographical Outline of General Richard E. Cavazos (1984).
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    Photo Caption: "The Borinqueneers" was the nickname given to the U.S. Army National Guard's 65th Regimental Combat Team from Puerto Rico. During service in Korea, the 65th fought valiantly, receiving numerous unit awards, four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 100 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanic-American ethnic groups, made up mostly of Puerto Ricans and others with ancestry from Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, already had distinguished themselves through combat skills and bravery during World War II.
     
    In July 1950, there were about 20,000 Hispanics in the armed forces. Over the next three years, nearly 148,000 Hispanic-Americans volunteered for or were drafted into military service. Of these, approximately 60,000 Puerto Ricans served in Korea.
     
    During the Korean War, most Hispanic-Americans served in the Army and Marine Corps. However, several thousand served in the Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard in both combat and combat service support branches. Commanders recognized the courage and determination of Hispanic-Americans in combat. Nine Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor and more than 100 others received Distinguished Service Crosses and Silver Stars for acts of combat bravery.
     
     
    Photo Caption: First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, United States Marine Corps, scales the sea wall at Red Beach during the Inchon Landing, Sept. 15, 1950. Minutes after this photo was taken, Lopez sacrificed his life to save his own men and earned the Medal of Honor.
     
    Honor et Fidelitas
     
    Honor et Fidelitas, or "Honor and Loyalty," was the motto of the 65th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) from the United States territory of Puerto Rico. During the Korean War, this unit, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" after one of the original Indian tribes inhabiting Puerto Rico, quickly won respect on the battlefield. The 65th deployed to Korea in September 1950, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company. During October and November 1950, the 65th RCT participated in search-and-destroy missions targeting the remnants of North Korean Army units left in South Korea to harass U.S. and Republic of Korea (ROK) forces.
     
    In late November and early December, the unit, now attached to the Army's 3d Division, fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. During Dec. 9–24, the 65th RCT joined the defensive perimeter protecting Hungnam Harbor during X Corps' withdrawal from North Korea.
     
    During nine major campaigns over three years, the 65th RCT was credited with capturing 2,086 enemy soldiers and killing 5,905. The regiment received one Presidential Unit Citation (Army), one Presidential Unit Citation (Navy), one Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army), one Navy Unit Commendation, two Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citations and the Bravery Gold Medal of Greece. Individual members of the unit were awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses and over 120 Silver Stars.
     
    Hispanics Who Received the Medal of Honor
     
    Nine Hispanic-Americans received the Medal of Honor during the Korean War. Private First Class Eugene A. Obregon, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines was killed on Sept. 26, 1950, in Seoul while trying to rescue a wounded Marine who was unable to return to safety. Private First Class Joseph C. Rodriguez, an infantry assistant squad leader in the Army's Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Division assaulted several well-fortified enemy positions on a ridge near Munye-ri on May 21, 1951. Rodriguez killed 15 Chinese soldiers, enabling his company to take control of the hill.
     
    On the night of May 31, 1951, near Wongtong-ni, Corporal Rodolfo P. Hernandez of the Army's Company G, 187th Airborne RCT protected his platoon from attacking Chinese troops by leaving his foxhole and engaging advancing enemy soldiers with only his rifle and bayonet. Hernandez killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet and bullet wounds.
     
    Private First Class Edward Gomez of Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines was killed in action while attacking a heavily-fortified North Korean position, in a bloody, combat-scarred area known as the Punchbowl, on Sept. 14, 1951. Gomez exposed himself to hostile fire as his squad moved forward and threw himself upon an enemy grenade to protect other members of his unit. His sacrifice inspired Company E to continue the offensive and eventually gain control of Hill 749.
     
    On Sept. 6, 1952, Corporal Benito Martinez's unit, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, was defending a hill known as the "Sandbag Castle" near Satae-ri when the North Koreans attacked. Martinez remained alone at a forward observation post. He held his position for six hours before running out of ammunition and being killed by the enemy.
     
    Staff Sergeant Ambrosio Guillen of Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines defended an outpost near Panmunjom during the final days of the armistice negotiations. When two battalions of Chinese forces attacked Guillen's platoon the evening of July 25, 1953, his leadership inspired his fellow Marines to fight against a much larger enemy force and hold the position. The enemy retreated, but Sergeant Guillen later died of wounds he had received in hand-to-hand combat during this engagement. Two days later, on July 27, 1953, the armistice was signed at Panmunjom.
     
    Three other Hispanic-Americans awarded the Medal of Honor were Captain Reginald B. Desiderio, commanding officer of the Army's Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, a platoon commander with Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; and Private First Class Fernando Garcia, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines.
     
    Other Hispanic-Americans in the Korea War
     
    Many Hispanic-Americans who fought bravely during Korea went on to continued success in their military careers. Air Force Captain Manuel J. Fernandez Jr., a fighter ace of the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flew 125 combat missions over Korea. He shot down 14 MiG-15 fighter aircraft on his own and shared one additional shootdown. Captain Fernandez was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross and a Silver Star during his tour of duty; he remained in the Air Force after the Korean War and retired with the rank of colonel.
     
    Richard E. Cavazos received a battlefield commission as an Army second lieutenant in 1951 and retired in 1984 as a four-star general. He was a decorated platoon and company commander in the Korean War and served as a battalion commander in the Vietnam War.
     
    Salvador E. Felices, a Puerto Rican who won a presidential appointment to the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1943, transferred to the Air Force when that service was established in 1947. During the Korean War, he served as combat operations officer for the 98th Bomber Wing based in Yokota, Japan, flying 19 combat missions in B-52s over Korea in 1953.
     
    Sources
    Gann, Lewis H., and Peter J. Duignan. The Hispanics in the United States (1986).
    Harris, William W. Puerto Rico's Fighting 65th U.S. Infantry (1980).
    Jessup, John E., ed. Encyclopedia of the American Military (1994).
    Reddy, Marlita, A., ed. Statistical Record of Hispanic Americans (1993).
    United States Air Force History Support Office. Biography of Major General Salvador E. Felices (1974).
    United States Department of Defense. Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy. Hispanics in America's Defense. Department of Defense (1982).
    United States Military History Institute. Biographical Outline of General Richard E. Cavazos (1984).
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